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FM 5-35 



WAR DEPARTMENT 



ENGINEER FIELD MANUAL 

REFERENCE DATA 
February 15, 1941 



FM 5-35 



ENGINEER FIELD MANUAL 
REFERENCE DATA 



Prepared under direction of the 
Chief of Engineers 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON: 1941 



For sate by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. 
Price 73 cents 



WAR. DEPARTMENT, 
Washington, February 15, 1941. 



FM 5-35, Engineer Field Manual, Reference Data, is pub- 
lished for the information and guidance of all concerned. 

[A. G. 062.11 (10-2-40).] 

By order of the Secretary op War: 

G. C. MARSHALL, 

Chief of Staff. 

Official: 

E. S. ADAMS, 

Major General, 

The Adjutant General. 
Distribution: 

R2, 5, 17 <10), 36, 7 (5) ; 
IR 4 (5) ; Bn 2-11, 17 (5) ; 
C2, 5, 17 (10), 3,6, 7, 9. 10, 11 (5), 



TABLE OP CONTENTS 



Chapter 1. Engineer Troops and Operations. 



Section I. General 1-4 1 

II. Engineer units 5-14 3 

III. Camps and supply systems 15-17 25 

IV. Forms and orders 18-22 29 

Chapter 2. Communications, Construction, and Utilities. 

Section I. Roads 23-31 60 

II. Bridges and stream crossings 32-54 73 

III, Railways . _ 55-56 118 

IV, Construction m war - 57^62 125 

V. Water supply 63-72 140 

VI. Electricity 73-77 159 

VII. Rigging 78-82 168 

VIII. Concrete _ 83-87 186 

Chapter 3. Defensive Mi:asures. 

Section I. Field fortifications 88-110 193 

II. Camouflage 111-128 282 

III. Explosives and demolitions 129-138 305 

IV. Barriers and antimechanized 

defense 139-146 324 

Chapter 4. Miscellaneous Data. 

Section I. Mathematical and physical data__ 339 

II. Data on materials 355 

III. Troop movement! data 363 

Index 365 



in 



FM 5-35 

ENGINEER FIELD MANUAL 

REFERENCE DATA 
CHAPTER 1 
ENGINEER TROOPS AND OPERATIONS 

Paragraphs 



Section I. General 1-4 

n. Engineer units . 6-14 

III. Camps and supply systems 15-17 

IV. Forms and orders 18-22 



Section I 
GENERAL 

■ 1. Purpose and Scope. — a. The Engineer Field Manuals are 
designed to furnish technical information, describe the or- 
ganization of engineer units, and outline typical procedures 
that may be followed in the conduct of the more common 
operations undertaken by engineers in the theater of opera- 
tions. Local conditions in the field will always affect the ap- 
plication of these procedures, tables, and formulas; they 
should be taken as suggestions and guides to be used with 
judgment and modified to conform to the situation rather 
than as regulations to be rigidly followed. 

b. The purpose of this manual is to present the funda- 
mentals from the Engineer Field Manuals, FM 5-5 to FM 5-30, 
inclusive, in such condensed form as to be available in a single 
text when needed for ready reference in the field. Informa- 
tion and instructional matter not needed by experienced en- 
gineers or details available elsewhere required for deliberate 
construction have been omitted. Other data required for 
field construction have been added. 

■ 2. Basic Conceptions. — a. The purpose of the engineer 
arm is to assist in the accomplishment of the mission of the 
force as a whole. The amount and character of engineer 
work necessary to render this assistance will depend upon 
the nature of the terrain, the climate, the resources and 
development of the theater of operations, and the character 
of enemy activity. 

1 



2-4 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



b. The mission of engineers is to increase the combat 
effectiveness of all other arms through the execution of 
work to — 

(1) Facilitate movement of our troops. 

(2) Impede movement of the enemy. 

(3) Provide for shelter and comfort of our troops. 

■ 3. Duties in Theater of Operations. 

a. Remove or pass obstacles. 

b. Provide stream crossings. 

c. Repair and construct roads. 

d. Repair, extend, and operate railways and inland water- 
ways, 

e. Construct wharves and other facilities for water trans- 
portation. 

/. Construct and maintain landing fields. 

a. Execute demolitions and create obstacles. 

ft. Give technical assistance and furnish tools, supplies, 
and materials for construction of protective works and cam- 
ouflage, 

i. Construct works requiring special equipment and training. 
j. Fight as riflemen in emergency. (See fig. 26.) 
k. Make and distribute maps. 
I. Construct shelters. 

m. Construct supply and evacuation establishments. 

7i. Provide water supply, 

o. Provide and operate general utilities. 

■ 4, Character of Construction, — All work of engineers in 
war should be simple in conception, design, and execution. 
No construction should be better than is necessary to meet 
bare requirements. It should be accomplished with the great- 
est possible economy of material and force in the minimum of 
time, and plans therefor should be flexible to permit of last 
minute changes or alterations. For most structures, factors 
of safety can be extremely low and standards of durability 
limited. Standardization is desirable and will facilitate work 
in rear areas; however, in the theater of operations it will 
generally be necessary to make a maximum use of expedients. 
Offleers and men alike must be trained in locating materials 
by engineer reconnaissance, and in employing maximum 
ingenuity, resourcefulness, and common sense in their use. 

2 



REFERENCE DATA 



5 



Section II 
ENGINEER UNITS 

■ 5, Kinds of Units. — a. General engineer troops. 

(1) With infantry divisions. 

(a) Combat battalion (assigned to trianguiar division). 

(b) Combat regiment (assigned to square division) , 

(2) With armored units — combat battalion (armored). 

(3) With cavalry units — squadron < assigned to cavalry di- 
vision). 

(4) Nondivisional units. 

(a) Combat regiment (corps) (assigned to corps). 

(b) General service regiment (assigned to army and higher 
units) . 

(c) Engineer regiment (aviation) (assigned to GHQ Air 
Force) . 

(&) Separate battalion (assigned to army and higher 
units) , 

b. Special engineer troops, 

(1) Camouflage units. 

(a) Army camouflage battalion. 

(b) GHQ camouflage battalion. 

(2) Ponton units. 

(a) light ponton company. 

(b) Heavy ponton battalion. 

(3) Railway units. 

(a) Railway operating battalion. 

(b) Railway shop battalion. 

(4) Mapping units. 

(a) Corps topographic company. 

(b) Army topographic battalion. 

(c) GHQ topographic battalion. 

(5) Supply units. 

(.a) Water supply battalion. 

(b) Dump truck company. 

(c) Depot company. 

(d) Shop company, mobile. 

c. Engineer headquarters. — These are indicated in the fol- 
lowing table for the assignment of engineer units to a type 
GHQ force of three armies. 

3 



5 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Tadle T.-~Assiffnment of engineer units to a type GHQ ; 
three armies 



Strength 


J JRSlEJrljiT HJ I ] CjI C [ S L£ 1 iJilvr LI 11-1 i 


Ntlmber * normally 
assigned 1 various 
tactical units 


o 
a 
3 

D 


& 

5 


a 

w 

E 

J 
£ 

W 


| Division 


5 
O 


Army 


QHQ reserve 


■ S3 

■4 






Combat battalion (triangular division) 


* 1 

* 1 

* 1 
1 1 










9 






Engineer squadron 














Engineer battalion (armored division) 
















Combat regiment (square division) 


3 








18 
IS 
19 
48 
3 
1 
14 
3 
1 
6 
12 
24 
24 
9 

a 
1 

1 

3 
3 
9 
1 

S 
IS 
2 
1 

2 












— - 









a 
(■ 
i 


10 

30 


-— 


Separate battalion 










Camouflage battalion (army) 

Camouflage battalion (QOQ) 








1 
8 

1 
3 
9 
18 
12 




.... 












2 
1 




























i 
i 

2 
■1 






















— 




Light ponton company.. 




— 
1 










1 


3 
1 

1 

3 








Engineer headquarters (QHQ). „ 

Engineer headquarters (communications 






Engineer headquarters (communications 








Engineer headquarters (army) 






1 






Engineer headquarters (corps) 




1 
















1 

5 
15 
2 


1 
3 






Engineer headquarters (railway Brand divl- 





































































i lloes not include engineer units in subordinate tactical units. 

• Per infantry division (triangular). 

' Per cavalry division. 

i Per armored division. 

■ Per Snlan try division (square). 



I 



REFERENCE DATA 



5-6 



Nots. — This distribution is merely illustrative and is based on the 
normal needs of a type GHQ Force consisting of a GHQ Air Force 
and 3 type armies with 3 type corps each consisting of 1 triangular 
and 2 square infantry divisions. 

■ 6. Engineers With Infantry Divisions. — a. Combat bat- 
talion. — As the engineer component of the triangular infantry 
division, this unit performs the normal general engineer work 



|Jjj 



?° S 

8 S 



n 

i 



JL — X X — X S \ 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



for the division when the division is operating as part of a 
corps The combat battalion will often be reinforced to meet 
the needs of an independent division. Transportation is 
sufficient for all personnel and material; armament consists 
of rifles, bayonets, caliber .30 heavy machine ftTOmttg* 
The battalion commander is also on the staff of the division 
commander as unit engineer and is responsible for engineer 
supply to the division. 

b Canibat regiment. -The normal general engineer work 
of a square infantry division (operating tof«wid^ « £ 
part of a corps) is performed by this unit. In addition to 
equipment similar to that of the combat battalion, it has a 
map reproduction trailer. Transportation is sufficient for 
all personnel and material. Armament consists of rifles with 
bayonets, caliber .30 heavy machine guns rag***5 
regimental commander is also division engineer (see a above) . 

■ i engineers With Armored UNrrs^-The engineer bat- 
talion, entirely motorized, is the engineer <=«npwieiit 
armored division. Equipment, other than that of the bridge 
SgSft responds generahy to ft* of ^ c^bat ba U 
talion. The bridge company has a wrecking ^ truck, portable 
cranes, power boats, heavy ponton equipment. _ units of _B-10 
and H-20 portable steel bridges and portable steel trestle 
bridge two portable ferries, outboard motors, and radios 
Armament consists of caliber .50 machine guns, heavy and 
light caliber .30 machine guns, submachine guns, rifles, and 
pistols. Transportation includes half-track personnel car- 
riers half-track cars, and scout cars all with armament^ 
%-tcm weapon carrier trucks, and special trucks and trailers 
for the bridge company. The battalion commander is also 
division engineer (see par. 6a). 

■ 8 Engineers With Cavalry UNirs.-The engineer squad- 
ron assigned to, and performing the normal general engineer 
work for the horse cavalry division is similar to the combat 
battalion in armament and equipment as well as transporta- 
tion which is adequate for the simultaneous movement of all 
personnel and material. The squadron commander is also 
division engineer (see par. 6a) . 



6 



REFERENCE DATA 




CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



■ 9. Nondivisionai General Engineer Units. — a. Combat 
regiment (corps). — Two such regiments are assigned to each 
type army corps for the performance of general engineer work 
in forward parts of the corps service area and such division 
service areas as may be taken over by the corps. It is the 
primary source of reinforcements for divisional engineers. 
Power equipment includes motorized air compressors with air 
tools, a motorized earth auger, a motorized road grader, gaso- 
line shovels, and medium tractors with bulldozers. Trans- 
portation is sufficient for all personnel and material. 

b. General service regiment. — This unit is assigned organ- 
ically to army and higher units for the performance of gen- 
eral engineer work requiring a high percentage of skilled labor. 
It generally resembles the combat regiment (corps) in organi- 
zation, equipment, and armament. Transportation is suffi- 
cient for equipment and supplies but is not provided for per- 
sonnel. 

c. Engineer regiment, aviation. — This unit is attached to 
the GHQ Air Force and operates under the technical supervi- 
sion of the engineer section of that or other task air force 
headquarters for the primary purpose of assisting in the pro- 
vision of necessary air bases and advanced airdromes. Its 
power equipment includes motorized air compressors with air 
tools, road graders, carryall scrapers, a trencher, tractor 
cranes, compaction rollers of various types, plows, gasoline 
shovels, a road-material mixer, and tractors with bulldozers. 
Transportation is sufficient for moving all personnel and 
equipment simultaneously. Armament consists of rifles and 
pistols. 

d. Separate battalion. — The separate battalion is frequently 
attached in whole or in part as needed to reinforce other gen- 
eral engineer units, or it may operate alone. Tools and equip- 
ment include air compressors, a road grader, and a gasoline 
shovel, all motorized; medium tractors with bulldozers, and a 
concrete mixer. Transportation is sufficient to move all ma- 
teriel (but not personnel) at one time. Armament consists 
of rifles, bayonets, and pistols. 



in 



REFERENCE DATA 




11 



CORPS 



OF ENGINEERS 




REFERENCE DATA 



10-11 



■ 10. Camouflage Units. — a. Camouflage battalion, army. — 
One such unit Is assigned to each type army of three type 
corps. Its primary mission is camouflage inspection, disci- 
pline, and training in the army area. 



BN.COMDR. 
LT COLONEL 




Figure 9. — Engineer battalion, camouflage, army. 



b. Camouflage battalion, GMQ. — This is primarily a manu- 
facturing unit, but its duties also include inspection, train- 
ing, experimentation, and preparation of camouflage plans. 
It forms a nucleus for the organization of large camouflage 
factories, depots, and training centers. 

■ 11. Ponton Units. — a. Light ponton company. — This unit 
maintains and transports its equipment but normally does not 
construct bridges except in emergencies. The company is 
used to instruct or assist other troops in the use of the equip- 
ment, to guard and maintain completed bridges, to regulate 
traffic thereon, and to dismantle the bridges. 
(1) Equipment is of three types, as follows: 
(a) Three units of light ponton equipage, 10-ton, Ml 93 8, 
each of which will provide a complete bridge about 250 feet 
long. 

<b) Three units of footbridge, M1935, each sufficient for 
432 feet of bridge. 

CO One hundred twenty assault boats. 

15 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 





<0 ^ 




I 


So 

_J z 

E 


3 = E> 

£ > Ll> 

* U tr> 




1 9 




u £ 




a 



a 



£ < <i u 
uj X i tn 



4 



16 



11-12 



(2) The company has sufficient transportation for all 
personnel and equipment except that prime movers for the 
99 trailers on which the ponton equipage is transported must 
be furnished from other sources by higher command. 



ASSAULT 
BOAT 
SEC 



PUT HO 











Figure ll. — Engineer company, light ponton. 

b. Heavy ponton battalion. — This unit maintains and 
transports the heavy ponton equipage, 25-ton T M1940. The 
battalion is not organized primarily for construction of ponton 
bridges, which is normally the function of general engineer 
troops. However, under some circumstances the battalion 
may construct the bridge. Like the light ponton company, 
it is often used to instruct and assist other troops, to guard 
and maintain completed bridges, to regulate their traffic, 
and to dismantle them. Bridging equipment carried on semi- 
trailers drawn by 4 by 4 trucks consists of four complete 
units, each of which will afford 250 feet of bridge. 

■ 12. Railway Units. — a. Railway operating battalion. — The 
mission of this unit is to operate the trains and yards of a 
railway division; to maintain the track and structures of 
the division; and to make running repairs to equipment. A 
railway operating battalion may also be assigned to the op- 
eration and maintenance of a large railway terminal or 
regulating station. 

17 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



b. Railway shop battalion.— This unit handles the heavy 
shop work of several railway operating battalions. It as- 
sembles locomotives and other railway equipment and makes 







jE 

ilii 




=- s 

a § 


111 






Iri 




u < 


III 










in 
X 







2 E i 



I* 



i 






11 


L. Z 


1 S 

zap 

1 2 




w 

X 







f 




4 

2 I 

H 








H 




i£ ^ O 

r 











1 



i 



ill 



■r . 

5£a 



3 I 




20 



REFERENCE DATA 



12-14 



all major repairs thereto. It also manufactures replacement 
parts not available in depots. 

■ 13. Mapping Units. — a. Corps topographic company. — This 
unit increases the density of survey control and extends it as 
needed for the coordination of field artillery Are. It provides 
map information to the corps more rapidly than it can be 
expected from the army topographic battalion. The company 
also prepares and reproduces overlays and sketches for corps 
headquarters. 



COMRANY COMMANDER 
{CAPTAIN) 



1 












COMPANY 
HEADQUARTERS 




SURVEY 
PLATOON 




PHOTO -MAPPING 
PLATOON 




REPRODUCTION 
PLATOON 



Figure IB. — Engineer company, topographic, corps. 



b. Army topographic battalion. — The primary mission of 
this unit is to provide map information adequate for the tac- 
tical and strategical requirements of the army. Detachments 
may be made to a corps operating on an independent mission. 

c. GHQ topographic battalion. — The primary mission of this 
unit is the reproduction in large quantities of maps, special 
sketches, and drawings for GHQ and for distribution to lower 
echelons. It may frequently be required to reinforce army 
topographic battalions, although most of its equipment re- 
quires semipermanent installation. 

■ 14. Other Units. — a. Water supply battalion. — The primary 
mission of this unit is to purify water and transport it by tank 
trucks to areas where the local supply is deficient. It may 
also be required to develop sources and operate water supply 
points when such work is beyond the capability of the general 
engineer troops in the area. The unit may operate under 
army control, or elements may be used to reinforce subordi- 
nate units. One water supply battalion is normally assigned 
to each type army, but two or more may be used depending 
upon the need for transportation of water in the army area, 



21 



14 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



IT COLONFL 



XXV PUT 

I 



iwr 



Figure IS. — Engineer battalion, water supply. 

b. Dump truck company. — The primary mission of this 
unit is to transport road metal or other bulky materials needed 
in engineer operations. Each company has forty-five iy 2 - 
ton dump trucks for this use. 



COMPANY GOMMATfCEr 
tAPTBIH 



CO. 1 


DP TAX 




HO, 




DP Tfl« 




DP THK 




HQ. 




DP- TRK 




DPTfitf 


HO. [ 


9EC. 




SEC. 




SEC, 




SEC- 




SEC. 




SEC. 




SEC 



Figure 19. — Engineer company, dump truck. 

c. Depot company. — This unit is employed in connection 
with the operation of engineer depots and other engineer sup- 



COMPiNY COMMaWES 
CAPTAIN 



HQ. PlAt. 










CO. Hfl. SEC, 




D€P. sec. 



Figure 20.— Engineer company, depot. 
24 



REFERENCE DATA 



14-15 



ply points. It may form a nucleus for a large special engi- 
neer depot or the engineer section of a general depot, or it 
may operate alone a smaller engineer supply establishment. 
Depot sections, or detachments therefrom, may assist in the 
operation of engineer supply points in army service areas or 
may be attached to corps. 

d. Mobile shop company. — The mission of this unit is to 
accomplish third echelon maintenance of all equipment (ex- 
cept railway), for the maintenance of which the corps of 
engineers is responsible. 





COMPAur COMMANDER 
CAPTAIN 









HO PLAT 




M0BH.E 




MOflJLE 




HD&ILE 




SHOP PLAT 




SHOP PLAT 




SHOP PLAT 



figure 21.— Engineer company, mobile shop. 



Section ni 
CAMPS AND SUPPLY SYSTEMS 

■ 15. Bivouacs. — a. Location. — (1) Location and lay-out de- 
pend upon the tactical situation. 

(2) Locate near the route which is being used, and parallel 
thereto when possible. 

(3) Make maximum use of natural cover and avoid regular 
patterns. 



15-16 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



BW HO TRANSPORTATION 




■KITCHEN 

IN HO 3 MESSAGE CENTER 



-ccc - 

AREA 



-Co a — 

AREA 




Co TRANSPORTATION. 
Co KITCHEN 

SHELTER TENTSlL-Co» 



Figure 32. — Diagrammatic lay-out of battalion bivouac. 

(4* Allow 50 square yards per man or animal and 100 
square yards per vehicle. 

6. Sanitary measures.— (1) Dig latrines immediately at 
rate of one per company for men and one per battalion for 
officers. Keep latrines away from and down wind of kitchens. 

(2) Establish water supply facilities quickly, inform troops, 
and mark watering places. 

(3) Dig a garbage disposal pit (4 by 4 by 4 feet) for each 
kitchen. 

(4) Police site thoroughly upon leaving. Fill, mark, and 
date all latrine and garbage pits, 

■ 16. Camps.— Allow 50 square yards per man or animal and 
100 square yards per vehicle. 



26 



REFERENCE DATA 



1G 



ATRINg 



I 

I 



EW OFFICERS fQ □ 



- □□□□□□oo 

— Ban 



□ □□□□□acta 




9 
i 
i 

DdQpa|0 



2" L^3WAtERHM«lN'^& () 

nf! snni 



CfjofFffitRS ICSS 

B-dsw**;* 1 " 



□□ □□" %an± pa Dui 
□□ dd2 ioai ma h 

□ □s £OOS s DOS 

□ □s Inns «tin is aa' 
on? Ion s nm 

□ □I ]□□ | □□! • 

□ □5 *□ □ S □ □ I i 

□is pa % 



"Cm — Vco -^--a-co— 



-Q 



STOCKADE 

WASH ROOMS AND SHCWER BATHS 

EL. fQmOjwC. _ EL _ -B EL .0. 

cn a □ a 1=1 coven* 

i 1 r~n i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1 □< 

I I 
I I 



I I 

I I 



I 

I ] 
I 1 

!i 



I 



I 
[ 

L . 

VEHICLE 



□ 



H0 8SERV 

CO I 



L-J L_J L_J L-J L_J L_J I i 



INCINERATOR 
ANO 



_J 



FOR TIN CANS 
AND ASHES 



I 



Fioure 23 —Diagrammatic lay-out ol regimental 



27 



17 corps of engineers 

■ 17. Supply. 




to THE 
HEAR 



KPANSION AREA NO.t 



iff* 



w 




W///////7///, ^ehouw >'/77/7rr/7/777Z 

// PMOnMWWMC. OS*fTWS r SURYEtWII, CfFICE *i» EL ECTJrltHL EQUIPMENt " /// 
//, ftHD SLPPPtrES, TOULfit CtMtNlj talflWltttaj CMEMtWlt.3 E1C, //// 



fgffTlFlCATlOU SUPPLIES 




FORTtriCATION SUPPLIES 



FOBT^IGATIOK SUPPLIES 



EXPANSION AREA NO. £ 



FORTJF1CATION SUPPLIES 

WlUE, lil L j. HOOP INS. ETC. 



EWw/j V/iMmnv/A ft&s^Siii 7 ) FsSH'St&l 

[-fSw<>>ai%7/\ [■'/axnauty^ y/iunmars^ X//*<1o*™/A 

100 100 200 joo «oo 

1 1 ■ i.i i i i i i t I [ I L_ 




Figtjiie 25.— Typical army engineer depot in combat zone, showing communications, lay-out of stocks, and 
on estimated 15-day stockage lor army of 3 corps of 3 square divisions each); minimum operating fo 



of 3 corps of 3 s 



LEGEND 

O INDICATES OPEN sreffASC 
IHUICATES COVERED STORAGE 



on areas (based 
1 depot company. 



282736 " — 11 (Face p. 28) 



r 




REFERENCE DATA 18-19 



Section IV 
FORMS AND ORDERS 
■ 18. Form for Intelligence Flan. 

INTELLIGENCE PLAN 
Period: 

Essential elements of enemysinformation (as announced by division 
headquarters) . 

1. 

2. _ 



3. 



Information required 


Agencies 
(check thoso to ho omjjlovei]) 


□ 


& 

i 


o 

& 

1 


w 


Etc. 












Information to be furnished im medi- 
ately to division or other head- 
quarters: 
(1) 














(2) 
















































































Information tor primary use of engi- 
neers: 















































































































■ 19. Form for Reconnaissance Instructions. — In the fol- 
lowing form, check numbered items on which Information is 
desired, and use the blank right hand column for additional 
instructions, listed a, b, c, etc. 



29 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

RECONNAISSANCE INSTRUCTIONS 

(Organization) 

_. 

(Place) 

"""(Date and hour) 



,_19 



19 



No. 

To 

Effective 
Maps: 



Reconnoiter and report information as Indi- 
cated twlow by items chocked <#), Re- 
port also any other information of tech- 
nical import ance incidentally secured. 

I. GENERAL FEATURES (complete 

report with particular attention to 
other items checked). 

8. ADVERSE ENGINEER SITUA- 
TION IN CONNECTION WITH 
ATTACHED UNIT (colomn delay- 
ed, Insufficient engineers attached, 
insufficient supplies, etc.). 

8. AVENUES OF APPROACH. 

4. BRIDGES. 

6. CAMPSITES (suitable for a battalion 

or larger unit- Give details on avail- 
ability of wood, water, cover). 
8, COVER (suitable for reserve position 
for battalion or largo unit. Generally 
suitable for camouflage of activities). 

7. DEFENSIVE POSITION8. 

8. DEMOLITIONS BY ENEMY (de- 

tails, labor, materials, and time neces- 
sary to repair). 

0. ERRORS IN EXISTING MAPS. 

10. FIELDS OF FIRE. 

II. MATERIALS AND PLANT. 
12 OBSERVATION. 

18. OBSTACLES TO OUR MOVE- 
MENT (natural and artificial). 

14. OBSTACLES TO ENEMY MOVE- 

MENT (suitable points). 

15. RAILROADS. 
IB. ROADS. 

17, STREAMS (width, depth, fords, fer- 

ries , navigability , condition of banks 

and approaches). 

18. UTILITIES {garages, machine shops, 

electric plants, water-supply plants, 
gas systems), 
lfl. WAT ERWAYS. 



SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS 
Areas anil roads to be reeonnoitered in 
connection with missions ordered. 
Hour and destination of reports. 



BY ORnEH OF 

(Signature) 



(Grade and organization) 

30 



REFERENCE DATA 



20 



■ 20. Forms for Reconnaissance Reports.- — a. General recon- 
naissance. 

ENGINEER RECONNAISSANCE REPORT 
General features 



Date 

1. Route followed. 

2. Roads traveled: 



From— 


To- 


Type 


Width 


Condition 























3. Obstacles encountered on roads (list In order met and describe 
briefly. Indicate materials available locally lor passing eacti) 



4. Streams crossed: 



Name 


Width 


Capacity of 


™c°' 


















5. Telephone lines. 


From— 


To— 


Number of 
vvirvs 


Condition 



















6. Towns. 



Miimc 


Approsimiitc 
population 


W I 


E 1 


a i 























7. Road materials. 


Located at— 


Kind and quantity 











' Indicate serviceability of water, electric, and gas 

31 



20 corps op 

8. Camp sites at which fuel and water are available. 



— 

9. Feasible j 



! on roads or railroads lor 



obstacles. 



Location 


Type of ob- 
stacle 


Estimate of 
explosive re- 
quired 















10. Additional information" 








6. Construction materials and equipment. 

ENGINEER RECONNAISSANCE REPORT 
Construction materials and equipment 
Party -, 



Date 

Map reference 

1. Area covered by reconnaissance 



2. Standing timber: 

General location If plentiful 

Specific location if t 
Range of sizes 



3. Lumber yards. 









Local inn 


- 


Quantities 


Cutting 
much Entry 















'Indicate good defensive positions, location of enemy lines, navi- 
gability of streams, fords, ferries, railroad sites, condition of railroads, 
and rolling stock, etc. 



32 



REFERENCE DATA 20 



4. Hardware stores. 




Location 


Genera! description of stock 











5. Gravel pits. 



Location 


Machinery at 


Daily capacity 














6. Quarries. 


Location 


Crushing ma- 
chinery 


Daily capacity 















7. Brickyards (location) 

8. Road machinery. 





Location 


Number 








Scrapers 




















Concrete mixers..... 










Miscellaneous 

















20-21 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



9. Pile drivers (location) 

10. Barbed wire. 


- 


Location 


Approximate 
quantity 











11. Additional material or equipment 

12. Remarks 

(Signature) 
(Grade) 

c. Roads, bridges, water supply, etc. — See sections I, II, and 
V, chapter 2. 

■ 21. Engineer Situation Report. — The following example 
may be used as a guide in reporting an engineer situation. 
Appropriate entries should be made under applicable head- 
ings or different headings substituted. 



(Organization) 

________ 

(DattMimf W ur > 

No. 

Mans : 

1. ENEMY INFORMATION (including prepared obstacles). 

2. OTHER OBSTACLES. 

3. WEATHER. 

4. ROADS AND RAILROADS. 

5. STREAM CROSSINGS. 

6. COVER. 

7. CAMOUFLAGE. 

8. ENGINEER SUPPLIES. 

9. WATER SUPPLY. 

10. UTILITIES. 



(Signature)""" 



22 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



■ 22. Illustrative Orders .—The following orders are sam- 
ples of orders issued by various types of engineer units. They 
are intended to illustrate form and subject matter only and 
must not be taken as tactical models. Coordinates of places 
are Indicated by parentheses ( ) after the name. For 
general instructions concerning combat orders, see PM 101-5 
(SOFM) . 



35 



Illustrative order Mo. 1 

FIELD ORDEK FOE A COMBAT REGIMENT ENGAGED 
ON ENGINEER DUTIES 



5th Ehgrs 

RJ 599-D, near WHITEHALL, PA ( ) 
16 June 19—, 11:00 PM 

PO 23 

Maps: Topographical Map, Getty sburg- Ant ietam, 1:21, 120; New Ox- 
ford, Abbotetown, Hanover, Bonneville, Taneytown, and 
Klngsdale sheets. 

1. o. The enemy on our front occupies a position along the 

general line IRISHTOWN ( ) — NEW OXFORD 
( ) . Our attack of this date forced his withdrawal 
for a distance of about 2 miles on the left of our 
division front. 

b. Our division, in conjunction with the rest of the First 
Army, resumes the attack at 4:00 AM, 17 June; 9th 
Brig on the left, 10th Brig on the right. For details 
of operations, etc., see Annex No 1, 

2. This regiment will assist the attack by maintaining the 

routes of communication and assisting the forward 
movement of the artillery. 

3. a. The 1st Bn (less Co C) will repair and maintain roads 

and bridges in rear of the 9th Brig. 

b. Co C is attached to the 5th FA Brig, effective at 4 : 00 AM, 

17 June. The CO, Co C, will report to the CO, 5th 
FA Brig, prior to midnight 16-17 June, for instruc- 
tions, 

c. The 2d Bn will maintain roads in the 10th Brig zone 

of action, and will complete the trestle bridge across 
SOUTH BRANCH CONEWAGO CREEK near RJ 
500-A ( ) . 

d. (1) Hq and Serv Co with the band attached, will con- 

tinue to operate from its present location. The 
CO, Hq and Serv Co, will provide for an adequate 
supply of road materials north of SOUTH 
BRANCH CONEWAGO CREEK. 



36 



REFERENCE DATA 



22 



(2) The Div Engr Sec and Lighting Plant will continue 
to operate with the Fwd Ech DHQ. 

(31 The gravel pit and water supply point will remain 
in operation in present location. 
x. (1) Priority of road maintenance will be given to the 
division main supply road and to those roads 
shown on overlay No 2, "Road Circulation Plan." 

4. a. Supply. 

(1) Class I railhead: LTTTLESTOWN ( ).— Rail- 

head distribution at 10: 00 PM. 

(2) Ammunition railhead : UTTLESTOWN, 

(3) Engineer. 

Army depot: TANEYTOWN ( ), 

Div. DP: RJ 599-D ( >. 
t>. Aid Sta: RJ 599-D. Evacuation through Coll Stat at 

CR633 ( ). 
c. For other administrative details see Adm O No. 8. 

5. Command posts and axes signal communication. 

5th Div: SMALL ( )— GEO LAWRENCE ( ), 

5th Engrs: RJ 599-D— IRISHTOWN ( ) . 

Hq and Serv Co: RJ 599-D. 

1st Bn: RJ 559-G ( ). 

2d Bn: REBERT ( ). 

5th FA Brig: VALLEY SCHOOL ( ) . 

G 

Colonel 

Annex: No, 1, G-3 Information. 
Distribution: A, and 5th FA Brig. 



37 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Illustrative order No. 2 



FIELD ORDER FOR A COMBAT REGIMENT IN COMBAT 
AS RIFLEMEN 



3d Engrs 

WHITE FARM, PA ( ) 
3 Aug 19 1 ■ 1:30 PM 

FO 17 

Maps: Topograptcal Map, Gettysburg- Antietam. 1:21.120; Hunters- 
town— Arendtsville sheets. 

1. a. The enemy still occupies the observation station on hill 

339 ( ) on the right boundary of the zone of ac- 
tion of the 5th (left) Brig. 

b. Our division continues the attack extending the zone of 

action of the 5th Brig to the left to include hill 242 
( ). 1st Bn, 4th Inf is on the right of the 5th 
Brig. 2d Bn, 30th Inf is on the left of the 6th 
Brig. 1st Bn, 10th FA from positions near SMITH 
S H ( ) supports operations in the area includ- 
ing hill 339. 

2. This regiment (less 1st Plat, Co E) will seize and hold the 

observation station on hill 339. 
Formation: column of battalions. LD and boundaries 
(see Opn overlay) . 

3. a. The 1st Bn will clear WHITE FARM and will attack 

at 2:00 PM in the direction RJ 225 ( >— hill 339 
(see Opn overlay) . 
6. The 2d Bn (less 1st Plat, Co E) will await orders In 
regimental reserve in vicinity of RJ 225. 

c. The 1st Plat, Co E, with three Hq and Serv Co trucks 

attached, will continue maintenance of the division 
main supply road extending its operations to include 
COOKTOWN and RJ 243 ( ) . 

d. The Rr Ech will await orders at WHITE FARM. 

4. a. Am dump, RJ 225. S-4 will obtain extra ammunition 

by track from LAWTON ( ) . 

b. All vehicles will be held mobile and under cover in as- 

sembly positions near WHITE FARM. 

c. Aid Star Initial location, SW of RJ 225. 

d. Other details, no change. 



REFERENCE DATA 



22 



5. Command posts and axes signal communication. 

3d Engrs: WHITE FARM— RJ 225 — RJ 282 ( )— 
hill 339. 

Rr Ech: WHITE FARM. 

1st Bn: RJ 282. 

2d Bn: RJ 225. 

1st Plat. Co E: HOLT ( ). 
1st Bn, 10th FA: SMITH S H. 
4th Inf: LAND CR f ). 
30th Inf: MERRITT BHj ). 

A 

Colonel 

Annex: Opn overlay. 

Distribution: A, and to CO's 4th Inf, 30th Inf, and 1st Bn, 
10th FA. 

Illustrative order No. 3 

ENGINEER PARAGRAPH IN A DIVISION ATTACK 
ORDER 



X X X X 

3. /. The 1st Engrs. (less Dets) will be prepared to assemble 
at CR 725 ( ) on 2 hours' notice for use in division 
reserve. 

X X X X 



39 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



9 
i 
t 
i 



..... ? 

f / 

PLATOON COMMANOER | 



SCOUTS 
PRECEDE 
THE ADVANCE 



+ 1 

O FOLLOWS SCOOTS 
] IN ADVANCE j 

s 



I, 8 or J SQUADS) 



f 
1 
I 

I 

) 

4 



I ENOUGH To 
PROTECT FROM 
MIDRANGE 
ENEMY FIRE 



□ 
□ 



SQUAD WE DDE ON 



O TO LEFT / 



SPOKEN GROUND */ COVER 

C3 



PLATOON SERGEANT 
CONTROLS SUPPORT 



[2 



SQUAD AS SKIRMISHERS 
ON OPEN AREAS 



OBSERVES 
TO RKSHT 



o 
n 
a 

.a 



SUPPORT ECHFLON 
(MAY BE I or £ SOUADS) 
S0U40 COLUMN PREPARED 
FOR ACTION TO LEFT FLANK 
OR REINFORCE LEADING 
ECHELON WAV BE USED FOR 
ENVELOPMENT OF? FILLING 
GAPS TO FRONT. 
\ 



REAP OF 
LEADING ECHELON 
OURINC ATTACK 



FRONTAGE 100- EOO TC 
SCHEMATIC ONLY 
NOT TO ANY SCALE 
01 STANCES VARIABLE 



a 

□ 



O 

El 



TO COMPANY 



B PLATOON NCO 
TO 



.FLANKS ANO REAR 



VEHICLES IN RE AO 
WITH Co Rf. Ecli. 



Figure 26.— Disposition of an engineer (3 -squad) platoon in an 
attack as riflemen. 



40 



REFERENCE DATA 



22 



Illustrative order No. 4 

FIELD ORDER FOB- A GENERAL SERVICE REGIMENT 
WITH A CORPS 



350th Engrs 
FAIRFAX, VA ( ) 

FO 38 5 Oct 19—, 1:00 PM 

Map: USGS, 1:125,000; Mt. Vernon quadrangle. 

1. a. The enemy opposes lour army on the general line 

WOODBRIDGE ( ) — MANASSAS ( ). 

b. Our army continues its preparations for the attack. 

The n Corps prepares to attack in the general direc- 
tion HOLMES ( )— MABTLNDALE ( >. For 
details see FO No 36, 350th Engrs. Effective 5 : 00 AM 
6 Oct the corps rear boundary is advanced to 
TTTTJi ( )— SEATON ( )— RJ 258 ( ) (all 
incl) and the divisional rear boundary is advanced to 
the BARR ( )— HOLMES < )— SMTTHSON 
( ) road (all excl). 

c. Army engineer troops take over engineer operations in 

rear of HILL— SEATON— RJ 258 (all excl) by 1:00 
PM 6 Oct. The 351st Engrs (Gen Serv) , First Army 
take over the area work from the 350th Engrs. The 
P RR (HOYT ( >— ALMER ( )— WILTON 
( ) ) is taken over by the army for operation at 
8:00 PM today. For disposition of engineer troops 
in H Corps, effective 5:00 AM 6 Oct see Annex No. %, 
Engineer situation map. 

2. This regiment, -with 413th Engrs (Sep Bn) attached, 

effective 5:00 AM 6 Oct, will execute general engineer 
work in that portion of the corps zone of action west of 
HOLMES — HOLT — WILTON — SEATON (all incl) and 
will extend the F RR from ALMER JUNCTION to 
HOLMES, 

3. a. The 1st Bn (less Co A) , with Co D, 413th Engrs attached, 

will repair the P RR from to 

b. The 2d Bn (less Cos E and F) , with Co C, 413th Engrs at- 
tached, will continue general engineer work in Its 
present area. 

41 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



c. The 413th Engrs (less Cos C and D) , with Co A, 1st Bn, 
350th Engrs attached, mil continue maintenance of 
the! corps main supply road WHITE ( ) — HOLT — 
HOLMES and will extend their operations to in- 
clude HOLMES. 

A. Co E will take over general engineer operations in that 
portion of the corps zone of action to be vacated by 
the 3d Div. 

e. Co P will take over general engineer operations in that 
portion of the corps zone of action to be vacated by 
the 2d Div. 

/. Hq and Serv Co wOl operate from ALMER. Detach- 
ments and equipment with units of regiment will 
remain unchanged. 

g. The band will remain attached to the supply section of 
Hq and Serv Co. 

x. (1) Reconnaissance of new areas will be initiated at 
once. 

(2) Troop movements will be effected after 7:00 PM 

tonight. 

(3) For schedule of engineer work and priorities and 

distribution of regimental and special equipment 
see Annex No. 2, Engineer work. 
4. a. Supply. 

(1) Class I railhead: ALMER JUNCTION ( ). S-4 

will draw for the regiment and attached troops 
at 10:00 PM. 

(2) Engineer. 

Army depot: ALEXANDRIA ( ). 
Regimental supply point: ALMER. 

b. Evacuation. 

(1) Aid Sta. 

350th Engrs: ALMER. 
413th Engrs: HOLT. 

(2) Casualties by truck or ambulance to ALMER. 

c. For other administrative details see Annex No. 3, Ex- 

tracts Adm O No 25, II Corps, 



42 



REFERENCE DATA 



22 



5. Command posts. 

a. Engineers. 

350th Engrs: ALMER after 9:00 PM. 
1st Bn: ALMER JUNCTION. 
2d Bn: WHITE. 

413th Engrs: HOLT after 5:00 AM 6 Oct. 
Co E, 350th Engrs: RJ 350 ( ) after 5:00 AM 
6 Oct. 

Co P, 350th Engrs: CR 400 ( ) after 5:00 AM 
6 Oct. 

b. For command posts of other engineer units and corps 

and divisional troops see Annex No. 4, Command posts. 

L 

Colonel 

Annexes: 

No. 1, Engineer situation map. 

No. 2, Engineer work. 

No. 3, Extracts Adm O No 25, n Corps. 

No. 4, Command posts. 
Distribution: A. 



43 



22 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

Illustrative order No. 5 
FIELD OEDEE FOB A WATEE SUPPLY BATTALION 

76th Engrs (W Sup) 
VIVA. TEX ( ) 
FO 9 25 May 19 — , 4:00 PM 

Maps: USGS 1:125,000; Alton, Millla, and Waverly quadrangles. 

1. a. No important changes in the enemy situation. 

b. Our army continues its preparation for the attack. 

c. The water supply in the LEWIS PLATS area ( ALT . I S 

( ) — BOND C ) — COLBY ( ) — DEVON 
{ ) (all incl)) must he supplemented by water 
transported in motor vehicles. Pour tank ears are to 
he spotted at OLGA ( ) siding at 8:00 PM and 8:00 
AM daily, commencing 26 May. Purification sections 
of Serv Plat, Hq and Serv Co, are attached to corps as 
follows: to I Corps two sections and to II Corps two 
sections. Engineer troops are in charge Of general 
engineer work in the LEWIS PLATS area as follows: 
north of LEWIS C )— WATSON ( ) road 
(excl), HI Corps ; south of LEWIS— WATSON road 
(incl) and west of AUSTIN CREEK ( ) and MILL 
GULCH ( ), 21st Engrs (Gen Serv) First Army; 
south of LEWIS — WATSON road (incl) and east of 
AUSTIN CREEK and MILL GULCH, 60th Engrs (Sep 
Bn) First Army. 

2. This battalion (less dets) will transport water in the LEWIS 

FLATS area and will assist in the establishment and 
maintenance of water DP's. 

3. a. Co A, with one purification sec Hq and Serv Co attached, 

will report to the CG IH Corps for operation in that 
portion of the LEWIS FLATS area within the corps 
zone of action. Clearing VIVA ( ) by 7:00 PM, it 
will march via ELLSWORTH ( ) —COLBY road to 
LESLIE ( ) where it will pass to the control of the 
in Corps. It will revert to battalion control when 
the corps rear boundary is advanced to exclude the 
general line COLBY—DEVON, 
b, Co B will operate from OLGA and transport water to 
water DP's in the area ALUS— BOND— JONES FARM 
( )_ BOWIE ( ) (all incl). 

44 



REFERENCE DATA 



22 



c. Co C will operate from OLGA and transport water to 

water DP's in the area LEWIS— WATSON road 
(incl) — JONES FARM — BOWIE (both excl). 

d. Hq and Hq and Serv Co (less dets) will operate from 

OLGA. Storage facilities will be established at OLGA. 

e. Water analysis dets will report to CO's of Cos B, and C. 
x. (1) The battalion (less Co A and dets) will clear VIVA 

by 8:00 PM and will march via RJ 248 ( ) to 
OLGA. Order of march : Hq, Co B, Co C, Hq and 
Serv Co, Med Det. 
(2) Reconnaissance of area will be initiated at once and 
detailed plans of operation submitted by 7:00 AM 
26 May. 

4. a. Supply. 

(1) Class I, 

Rhd: OLGA after 4:00 AM 26 May. 

Bn (less Co A and Dets) : OLGA 10 : 00 AM. 

Co A: through HI Corps, 

(2) Engineer. 

Army depot: LAWRENCE ( ). 
Army shop: LAWRENCE. 
Bn Sup Ft: OLGA after 5:00 AM 26 May. 
b. Aid Sta: OLGA after 5:00 AM 26 May. 

Evacuation via Coll Sta: OLGA after 4:00 AM 26 May. 
Medical mobile laboratories: WESTON ( ) — 

HOG AN ( ). 
Army medical laboratory: WHEATON ( ). 
Other administrative details: No change. 

5. Command posts. 

Bn: OLGA after 5:00 AM 26 May. 
Co B: Same. 
Co C: Same. 

Co A: through Engr Hq III Corps at HORTON ( ). 
Army Engr Hq: WHEATON. 
Army Med Hq: WHEATON. 
21st Engrs: HOLLY ( ). 
60th Engrs : WILBUR ( ) . 

W 

Major 

Distribution: A, and 21st and 60th Engrs. 



282736° — 41 i 45 



22 



CORPS OF ENGDJEEiiS 



Illustrative order No. 6 
ENGINEER PARAGRAPHS IN A DIVISION 
ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER 

1st Div 

Adm C 12 MILTON, MD ( ) 

2 Aug 19— 4:00 PM 
Maps- Topographical Map, Gettyshurg-Antietam, 1:21,120; Emmits- 
burg, Taneytown and Klnsdale sheets. 

1. SUPPLY. 

a 

b. class I: 

Rhd: GALT ( ) effective 8:00 PM 4 June. 
1st Engs: 9:00 PM. 

d. Water. 

(1) DP's: LEWIS FARM < >, AKRON ( >, RJ 
694 C >. 

(2) All water for drinking will be chlorinated. 

e. Engineer. 

(1) Rhd: PINEY CREEK ( ). 

(2) DP commencing 3 June: CR 626 ( ). 

/ 

2. EVACUATION. 

a. 

b " 

c. 

d. Captured material. 

(1) 

(2) T"""""^ 

m Engineer materials will be taken over by 1st Engrs 

and utilized for divisional work. 

3. TRAFFIC. 

a. Circulation. 

(1) See Annex No. 3— Circulation Map, effective 6:00 

AM 4 June. 

(2) Control. 

(a) Traffic control posts will be maintained at 
GALT, CR 469 C ) , TANEYTOWN ( > , 
WHITE MILL ( > and DASHERS MILL 
( ), and at such temporary detours as 
may be established. 
46 



REFERENCE DATA 



22 



(b) Traffic priority: Ammunition vehicles, en- 
gineer vehicles, ration vehicles, 
b. Construction and maintenance of routes. 

( 1 ) Division main supply road : WESTMINSTER ( ) — 

TANEYTOWN — BRIDGEPORT C ) — two- 
track. 

(2) GALT— CR 538 ( )— TANEYTOWN road will be 

will be maintained for motor traffic — two -track. 

(3) RJ 438 ( ) to RJ 490 ( ) road (south of 

TANEYTOWN) will be maintained for motor traf- 
fic — one-track. 

(4) All crossings over PINEY CREEK will be maintained. 

(5) Signs will be posted indicating direction of traffic as 

shown on circulation map. 

4. TRAINS. 

a 

b 

e 

d. 1st Engrs: RJ 626 ( ) released. 

5. PERSONNEL. 

a. 

b. 

6. MISCELLANEOUS. 

a, 

b 

c. For employment of engineer troops see Annex No 7, Engi- 

neer plan. 

d. 

By command op Major General A: 

X 

Chief of Staff 

Official : 
Y 

AC of S, G-4 
Annexes: 

No 3, Circulation map. 

No 7, Engineer plan. 



47 



22 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Illustrative order No. 7 

ENGINEER ANNEX TO A DIVISION ADMINISTRATIVE 

ORDER 



ANNEX NO 7 TO ADMINISTRATIVE ORDERS NO 18 
1st Division 
Engineer Plan 

1st Div 

MILTON, MD ( ) 
2 Aug 19—, 4:00 PM 
Maps: Gettysburg-Antietam, 1*21,120. Taneytown and Ktogsdale 
sheets. 

1 ROADS AND BRIDGES. 

a Priority will be given the following work: 
' Maintenance of ALTON TURNPIKE C ) as two- 
track divisional main supply road. ^ 
Maintenance of HOLT ( >-CR 590 < 

TON ( ) road as two-track road for corps loads. 
Repair and maintenance of CR 590-RJ 600 ( ) 

road as one-track motor road for divisional loads. 
Maintenance of roads in immediate vicinity of railhead 
and engineer distributing point. 
6 Other roads indicated on circulation map will be main- 
tained for light motor transport only 

c. Road and traffic signs will be supplied for road system 

and all temporary detours. ^ .„ . 

d. All bridges over MARSH CREEK ( > will be main- 

tained. . 
e Traffic control on temporary detours will be under the 
engineers until it can be taken over by the military 
police. 

2 " JSSKS supply points for drinking water will be 
operated by the engineers commencing 5:00 AM 

Al AKRON ( > : two 2,000-gallon tanks operated by 
divisional pumping set. 

48 



REFERENCE DATA 



22 



SMITH FARM ( ), LEWIS S H ( ), and 
RJ 430 ( ) : each a 3,000-gallon canvas tank. 
6. Distribution of water will be controlled by the division 
engineer. 

C. All water sources will be marked with signs in accord- 
ance with GO 8. 

3. ENGINEER SUPPLY. 

a. Supply points. 

Army depot: SMITHTOWN ( ) , 
Division distributing point: RJ 438 C ). 

b. Local and captured engineer material will be taken 

over for divisional use. 
C. Intrenching tools for divisional troops will be delivered 
to regiments upon request of commanders, 

d. Dumps of engineer material in division area will be 

taken over by the corps as the advance progresses. 

e. No changes in methods of issue. 

4. MISCELLANEOUS. 

a. 5 KW set will accompany the Pwd Ech of Div Hq. The 
local plant at EIBERT ( ) will be operated for 
the Rr Ech of Div Hq. 

6. Map section will operate from RJ 438 after 9:00 PM 2 
Aug. 

5. ENGINEER TROOPS. 

a. 1st Bn 1st Engrs (less Co A) with command post at CR 

500 ( ) will be in charge of general engineer work 
in the area north of line: CR 590 ( ) — WOOD 
( ) (both exel.), 

b. 2d Bn 1st Engrs, with Co A attached, with command 

post at CR 480 ( > on ALTON TURNPIKE will be 
in charge of general engineer work in the area south 
of line : CR 590 — WOOD (both incl.) . 

c. Div Engr Sec accompanies the Fwd Ech of Div Hq. 

d. Command post, 1st Engrs: RJ 438. 
By command op Major General A: 

X 

Chief of Staff 

Official: 

y 

ACof S,G~4 

Distribution: Same as Adm O No IS. 

49 



CHAPTER 2 



COMMUNICATIONS. CONSTRUCTION, AND UTILITIES 

Paragraphs 

Section I. Roads - 23-31 

H, Bridges and stream crossings 32-54 

HI. Railways -— - 55-56 

IV, Construction in war - ° „t 

V. Water supply — - «3-72 

VI. Electricity - 

VTI. Rigging „_ — - - ™^ 

VHI. Concrete 



Section I 
ROADS 

■ 23, Traffic Capacity.— The maximum capacity of a single 
road lane is obtained when vehicles move about 33 miles per 
hour. However, for all practical purposes the capacity re- 
mains constant for speeds from 25 to 45 miles per hour. At 
these speeds the normal capacity of a single traffic lane car- 
rying military vehicles only is about 750 vehicles per hour. 
At bottlenecks this may be increased by cutting the distance 
between vehicles to about one-third of that for open high- 
way driving. This ultimate capacity, with speeds of 25 to 35 
miles per hour, is about 2,000 vehicles per hour. At night the 
ultimate capacity at 15 miles per hour is about 1,200 vehicles 
per hour. 

■ 24. Minimum Design Requirements. — a. Width. — 9 feet per 
lane; 10 feet desirable (4 feet for trails used by foot troops 
and horse cavalry). 

b. Carrying capacity.— 9,000-pound wheel load on pneu- 
matic tires, 

c. Grades.— Not more than 10 percent for motor traffic. 

d. Curves.— Radii greater than 150 feet (otherwise addi- 
tional width should be provided) . 

e. Overhead clearance. — 11 feet; 14 feet desirable. 

■ 25. Traffic Signs. — These are needed to mark the location 
of, or direction to, military installations, crossroads, geograph- 
ical points, etc. Letters should be of the following sizes: 

a. For roads traveled only by foot troops.— 4 inches high. 

50 



REFERENCE DATA 



25-27 



b. For main roads. — 4 inches high (sign should be not less 
than 17 by 17 inches, and at least 4 feet above the road 
crown) . 

■ 26. Form for Road Reconnaissance. 

report op road reconnaissance 

1. Road reported upon 

(Name or designation of road and points 



between which inspection was made) 

2. Date of reconnaissance 

3. Character of road 

(Concrete, macadam, gravel, earth, etc.) 

4. TMcfcness of pavement 

(Indicate if estimated) 

5. Usable width 

(Also Indicate wnether one, two, or more tracks) 

6. Limiting grades 

7. Bridges and culverts. 



Location 


Dimensions 


Capacity 


Conditions 
















8. Priority and nature of needed repairs or improvements. 


Location 


Work needed 


Estimated 
man-hours 


Malerials 
required 



















9. Materials available locally. 



Kinds of materials 


Location 


Quantity 














(Name, grade, organ ijation) 



■ 27. Construction of Military Roads. — a. General.— The 
basic necessity of all road construction is to provide adequate 
drainage ("Get water off and rock on") . Base courses should 
be well graded and compacted. Top course should be capable 
of resisting the abrasive action of traffic for which the road is 
designed. In general, civil standards are too high for military 
roads. 

51 



27-28 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




Figube 27.— Nomenclature of roads. 



b Steps in con struction.— Construction of a road involves— 

(1) Clearing trees, brush, and vegetation from the right-of- 

(2) Grubbing stumps and roots from the foundation. 
(Stumps cut off at ground level may be left if fill will be over 
1 foot high.) 

(3) Grading, shaping, and compacting the subcourses. 

(4) Laying and shaping the upper and top courses. 

■ 28 Organization of Maintenance Parties.— In general, the 
two methods of organizing engineer units for most efficient 
maintenance of roads are as follows: 

a Patrol —A certain designated section of road is assigned 
to a small designated unit, this unit working as a whole or in 
shifts depending on the situation. For continuous mainte- 
nance, under normal conditions, a combat or general service 
platoon should be assigned about 5 to 10 miles of road with 
trucks to move men readily and less under adverse conditions. 

b. Gang. — A large unit goes over the road at infrequent 
intervals making all necessary repairs. This method of or- 
ganization should be used in military operations only in cases 
of high type roads subject to slight or infrequent damage. 

52 



REFERENCE DATA 29 

■ ■ 29, Determination of Cross-Sectional Area of Ctjl verts. — 
Having determined the drainage area in acres, the following 
nomograph will give the necessary area of cross section of 
culvert to supply proper drainage: 

1000 — 
900 - 

boo - 

roo - 
soo - 
100 f ' 




»- 
s - 
0- 

HOUOCRAPH FOR SOLUTION of 
FORMULA' A' cVo 7 " 

1- 

A- AREA OF CULVERT OF EH INC In 30UARE FEET 

CP COEFFICIENT DEPEHDIHC ON CHARACTER OF TERftATR 

D< ORAtHABE AREA IH ACHE! ( 

EXAMPLE- THE AREA OF CULVERT FOR * ORAIHACE AREA 
OF SOO ACRES IH OEHTLT ROLLiHC TERRAIH {COEFFIClEHT 
-C-'O.A) II « SQUARE FEET. (SEE DASHED LIHE, ABOVE) 

Figure 28 —Nomograph based on Talbot's formula. 
Note. — Culverts should have slope at bottom to carry off Sows 
and extend well beyond side slopes of road unless elopes are well 
revetted. 

53 



30 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

■ 30, Typical Cross Sections of Roads. 




GRAVEL SUBBASE 6*TO»""-0R- FIELD STONE SUBBASE 
( OMIT SUBBASE IF SU8«RA0€ IS GOOD ) 



FiGtftE 29.— Waterbound macadam road. 
1 inch per foot. 




6 " to b" local substitute material 

SUCH AS SHELL , CORAL.LIME ROCK, itc. 



FicTraE 30.— Types of gravel roads. 



54 




® Cut 




eat z'foS' 



At least t-o'btloH3tibgr#*! 



Lingers T'lQ-'IO-O- 



Note.— Have stringers break joints. Bore %-inch holes for floor 
spikes. Spike planks with one spike per stringer. Place pickets at 
15-foot centers. Leave gaps in guard rails for drainage. 

Figure 31. — Single-lane plank road. 



r 

M _ 

r*H5i 



-LJ- 




, flooring 4tK)-tt> Q 



C-Strmgers 4'~to~'m<T 
At least' WbeioN itib^r^de^7 /-qoss S/eeperst'/O'te'-V 
Piekeb £ V Mastery) 

® /fALF ^SOT/OH 

ProTiBE 32.— Two-lane plank road (see note, flg. 31). 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Half plan. 




e'eaind legs cohnrf 
j wrffr brush £ cArih 



V&itmS logs /rea- 
died Ma ground 



tCeound Pickets 
Half section. 



Mean 6' diameter logs -Alternate hps € buffs 
Longitudinal section. 

Figure 33.— Corduroy road. 



56 



DEFERENCE DATA 



30 




FLOORING: J"T0 4"XIO"XIO , 0" 

EEZp^g^" ^ :^! 1 .- -:- I ■■■ ■ M 



SLEEPERS 4"XIO"X^'6'■ 



Standard lumber. 



SLEEPERS 



- FLOORING 2 LAYERS 8"*lflf 




Improvised materials. 
Plank- tread road. 



10" LOGS STAPLED TOGETHER 



Corduroy -tread road. 




Metal-tread road. 



IHS3 



Concrete -tread road. 



h — tr 










2V— - 





-av- 



Sandbag-tread road, 
Figuee 34.— Types of tread roads, 

57 



30-31 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




Ficuhe 35. — Wire -mesh road. 




PiGimE 37.— Repair of shell hole. 



■ 31. Useful Road Data, — a. Formulas. — (1) For computing 
volumes of earthwork. 

v {A l + A 1 ) L 

~2 X 27 

where 

V = volume of cut or fill in cubic yards. 
A, — area of cross section at one end in square feet. 
4,= area of cross section at other end in square feet. 
L =dlstance between end sections in feet. 

58 



REFERENCE DATA 



31 



(2) For transportation of earth, gravel, or crushed rock. 



Q 



xc 



where 

Q=cubie yards, place measure, moved per hour. 
I=length of haul in feet. 
C= cubic yards moved per load. 

a=minutes during which vehicle is not in motion (loading, 

unloading, waiting). 
r=rate of vehicle in feet per minute (normally about 200 

for animal-drawn vehicles; 700 for trucks), 
b. rabies. — Add 8 percent to figures in work-capacity tables 
to allow for officers and noncommissioned officers. Add 20 
percent to figures on loose earth, crushed rock, etc., to allow 
for shrinkage when rolled. 

Table n.— Man-hours required for various operations in road 

construction 



Operation 



Man-hours required for 
100 linear yards 



( ! ) 



< J ) 



(1) Grading _ 

(2) Placing large stones 

(3) Spreading small stones 

(1) Placing stones, (2)+(3) 

(5) Placing plank.. _ 

(0) Spiking plank 

(7) Laying plank road, (5) -HO) 

(8) Cutting and placing corduroy.— 

(9) Construction, (»+«), (l)+(7) or (l)+(8). 

(10) Ditching 

(11) Construction, {9)+(10) 

(13 Unloading material 

(13) Construction, (H) +(12) 



200 
200 
70 
370 



135 
90 
30 

120 



560 
260 
830 
85 
005 



255 
200 
516 
40 
655 



260 
4G0 
60 
650 



80 
165 
260 
425 



i Macadam road, 9 feet wide, 12 inches of rock, ditches 4.5 square feet cross sect ion. 
1 Macadam tread road, 2,5 feet wide under each wheel, 12 inches of rock, ditches 
4.5 squaro feet cross section. 
■ Plank road, 9 feet wide, ditches 4,5 square feet cross section. 
* Corduroy road, 9 feet wide, ditches 4.5 squaro feet cross section. 



31 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Tabu m.— Loosening, excavating, and loading earth 



Material 




C< 


ibic yards per man per hour 




Loosen In g earth 


Excavation with pick and shovel 
to depth indicated (loot) 


Lotiilini! 
trucks or 
^'ii^i i ] i s 
maD with 
shovel In 
loose 
soil 


Man 
■with 
pick 


Man with 
3-horse 
plow 


Die 3 


ii [„ 


0to8 


lo 10 


Sand 






2.1 


1,8 


1.5 


1. £ 


1.8 


Sandy loam ... .... 


5.0 


SO 


2.0 


1.7 


1.4 


1.3 


2.4 


Gravel, loose 






1.5 


1,4 


1.2 




1.7 


Common loam 


4.0 


40 


J. 3 


1.2 


1.0 


1.0 


2.0 


Light clay 


1.9 


•a 


.9 


.8 


.7 


.7 


1.7 


Dry clay... 


1.4 


20 


.6 


.6 


.5 


.6 


1.7 


Wet clay 


1.2 


17 


.5 


.5 


.5 


.4 


1.2 


Haidpan 


1.4 


20 


.4 


.4 


.4 


A 


1.7 



Table IV.- — Man-hours required for clearing and grubbing 



Width (feet) 


Man-hours per 100 linear yards 


Light 
clearing 


Met! in in 
clearing 1 


JTeavy 
clearing 


SO 


10-10 
14-55 
18-70 


40-105 
66-140 
70-175 


105-630 
140-840 
175-1,050 


40 - - 







> In the eastern part of the United States the average for this class of work is about 
350 man-hours per acre. 



60 



REFERENCE DATA 



3} 



Table V. —Capacities of various items of road-construction 
equipment 



Item 



Capacity 



Power shovels: 

94-yard bucket 

J4-yard bucket 

Ji-yard bucket 

Steam roller 1 

Elevating grader: 

Small.... 

48-inch belt... 

Blade (trader, 7f4-ton self- 
propelled, 



24 cubic yards per hour assuming medium soli, good 
operator, adequate depth of cut, no lost time. 

30 cubic yards per hour assuming medium soil good 
operator, adequate depth of cut, no lost time, 

40 cubic yards per hour assuming medium soil, good 
operator, adequate depth of cut, no lost time. 

<SM cubic yards of loose rock compacted In 1 hour. 

25 square yards now macadam road rolled In 1 hour, 

50 cubic yards place measure loaded per hour. 
250 cubic yards place measure loaded per hour. 
440 squaro yards grave! road surface scarified and 

reshaped [k.t hour. 
50 cubic yards loose rock or loose earth spread per 

hour. 



Table VI.— Capacity of scrapers 





Slip 


Fresno 


Hotary 
Fresno 


2-whesl 


4-whcel 


Siie, cubic yards .. . 
Economical hauls, feet. _. 


Under loo 


K-l 
300 


H-2M 
600 


300-3,000 


1-12 

500-6,000 



31 



COB PS OF ENGINEERS 



Table VH.~ Cubic yards per hour {compact measure) moved by 
60-hp. bulldozer 



Length t)( 
haul (feet) 


Rate of grade In pcrcenl 
up liill 


l.r Vi I 


Rate of grade in percent, 
down hill 


15 


10 


5 





6 


10 


15 


20 


SO 


32. 6 


49.0 


05.3 


81.6 


114.0 


146.0 


179.0 


212.0 


100. - 


20.1 


30.1 


40.2 


60.2 


70.3 


90.4 


110.5 


130.6 


150 -- 


14.0 


21.2 


28.3 


35.3 


49.3 


63.6 


77.5 


91.8 


200 


10,0 


1S.1 


21.6 


26. 9 


37.7 


48.5 


69.1 


69.9 


250 


8.5 


12.9 


17.1 


21,5 


30.0 


38.6 


47.3 


65.8 


300- 


7.2 


10.6 


14.2 


17.8 


21.9 


31.9 


39.1 


46.1 


S50 — 


o.o 


9.0 


12.0 


15.0 


21.0 


26,9 


33,0 


38.9 


400 


5.2 


7.7 


10.2 


12.9 


18.1 


23. 1 


28.4 


33.5 


450 


4.5 


6.7 


8.9 


11.2 


15.7 


20, 1 


24.7 


29.0 




3.9 


6.8 


7.8 


9.8 


13.8 


17.6 


21.7 


25.5 


550 

000 


3.5 
3.2 


6.2 
4.6 


6.9 
6.1 


8.7 
7.8 


12.2 
10.9 


15l6 
13.9 


19.2 
17- 1 


22.5 
20.1 



















Note— For other sizes of bulldozer apply a suitable factor e. g., 
0.75 lor a 45 hp. or 1.60 for a 95 hp. tractor. (The heavy line drawn 
across each column Indicates the economical limit of haul.) 



Tabus Vin.— Man-hours required for spreading by hand 



Cubic yards 
per man-hour 



Earth dumped on road..-., 

Loose rock: 

Dumped on road.-. 

Dumped alongside road 

Loose screenings dumped on road 



m 
m 
i 



62 



REFERENCE DATA 31 



Table IX. — Man-hours required for effecting emergency passage 
of mine craters 



Method of repair 


Man-hours required 


With shovels alono 


4 X volume in pubic yards. 
2 X volume in cubic yards. 
2 X volume in cubic yards. 

1 X volume In cubic yards. 
15 X diameter in yards. 

60 X diameter In yards. 
18 x diameter in yards. 
9 X diameter in yards. 


"With shovels and wheelbarrows-.. 


With shovels and wagons where distance is not over 
200 yards and number of wagons is one- fourth num- 
ber of men. 


With standard bridge trestle and bents (trained 
workmen). 

With timbers {trees in vicinity, trained workmen) 

Detour of corduroy (corduroy available in vicinity) . - . 





Note.— The volume of a conical mine crater Is; 
Where 

V = volume of crater in cubic yards. 

,.=3.1416 (or 23/7 approx.). 

D = distance across top of crater in yards. 

d= depth of crater in yards. 

Table X. — Cubic yards of gravel or crushed rock, loose, required, 
per 100 linear yards of road 



Width of road (feet) 


Depth spread (inches) 


3 


3H 


4 




5 


6 


8 


9 


25.0 


29,2 


33.3 


37. S 


41.7 


50,0 


66.7 


10 


27.8 


32.4 


37.0 


41.7 


46.3 


55.6 


74.1 


18 


50.0 


58.4 


66.7 


75.0 


83.3 


1O0.0 


133.3 


20 




64.8 


74.1 


83.3 


92 6 


111.1 


148.2 



Note. — Screenings are required at the rate of % cubic yard for 
each cubic yard of loose material comprising the wearing surface. 
Crushed rocic usually weighs between 2,300 and 2,800 pounds per 
cubic yard. Granite weighs 2,800 pounds per cubic yard and lime- 
stone 2,500 pounds per cubic yard. For a water -bound macadam 
road 10 gallons of water may be required per square yard of 
surface. Crushed stone decreases 20 percent In volume when it 
is rolled. 



63 



31 



CORPS OF 



Table XI.—, Materials required per 100 linear yards of plank-tread 
road for motor trait— 



Requirements (*r 109 
linear yards 



Material 



Flooring, 4 i nches X 1 inches X 1 feet. . . 
Sleepers, 4 inches X 10 inches X 30 Inches.. 
Spikes, 0-inch -.- - 




Note. — Leave % inch between edges of floor plank. Boat spikes, 6 
inches by H inch, are driven staggered, one for each plank in each 
sleeper, in %-incH round holes. In emergency, nail with 60d wire 
nails. 

Table XII.— Materials required for single-lane plank road for motor 
transportation 



Material 



(1) Pickets, 6 Inches X inches X 4 feet 

(2) GuardraU r 0inchesx6inchesxlOfect. 

(3) Flooring, 4 inches X 10 inches 1 10 feet.. 

(4) Stringers, 4 inches * 10 inches X 10 feet _ 

(5) Sleepers, * inches x 10 Snehc3 x 10 rect- 
us) Ouardrail spikes, 8-lnch 

(7) Floor spikes, 6-inoti 



Requirements per 
100 linear yards 



Nam bet 
of pieces 


Weight 
(tons) 


40 


0.8 


58 


2.8 


381 


19.5 


120 


6.7 


76 


4,2 


220 




1.404 


.3 



Note — For on 18-foot road all quantities are doubled except 
items (1), (2), and <6>, which remain as above. Average weight 
of lumber is 40 pounds per cubic foot. Sleepers are used only when 
necessary. 



64 



REFERENCE DATA 31 



Table Xm.— Material required for single-lane corduroy road with- 
out stringers or guardrails 



Material 


Requirements per 
100 linear yards 


Number 
of pieces 


Weight 
{tons) 


Logs, 6 inches 




600 


23 







Note.— Any available material may be used. Calculations are 
based on white oak at 48 pounds per cubic foot. Timber will 
generally be cut alongside road and transported by hand or 
snaking. 



Table XIV. — Materials required for single-lane corduroy road with 
stringers and guardrails 



Material 



(1) Stringers, fi inches mean diameter, 10 feet long 

(2) Flooring, inches mean diameter, 10 feet long 

(3) Guardrails, inches mean diameter, 10 foetlong._._ 

(4) Pickets, Inches greatest diameter, 4 feet long 

(4) Guardrail spikes, 10-lnch_ 

(0) Floor spi kes, 1 0-i uch 



Note, — Any available material may be used. Calculations are 
based on white oak at 48 pounds per cubic foot. Timber will 
generally be cut alongside road and transported by hand or snak- 
ing. For an 18-foot road. Items (1), (2). and (6) are doubled; 
Items (3), (4), and (5) remain as above. Spikes are ^-inch. 



Requirements per 100 
linear yards 


Number ol 


Weight 


pieces 


(tons) 


130 


10 


000 


28 


45 


2.B 


40 


.r> 


220 




2,400 


.9 



65 



31 



CORPS OF 



Table XV,— Man-days and materials required per mile for main- 
tenance of double-fane macadam road, conditions average 



Conditions 



Dry weather. — ... 

Rainy weather 

Cold, freeilng, and thawing. __. 

Spring thaw — . 

Rainy weather. 

Rainy weather - 



Traffia 


Men 
day 


Materia] 
(tons) 


3-ton 
truck- 
loads 




6 


2 


1 




12 


3 


1 


— do — 


18 


16 





...do.. 


SO 


80 


27 


Continuous. 


120 


124 


8 


Continuous (under 
shell lire). 


240 


1 40 


14 



i Under such conditions toad material would be piled alongside of road whenever 
possible. 

Tablb XVI.— Volumes of cuts and. fills in cubic yards per 100 linear 
feet of length 



Average depth 
ol cnt or height 
of fill (feet) 



1 - 

2 

3_ 

4 

5 

6 

7 - 

S„. -- 

9 

10 

11 — 

12 

13 , 

M - 

IS.. 

16.. 

17 

IS —- 

19 

20 

21 

22... 



Bide slope 1 on 1— width (if base of cut or 
crown of fill (feet) 



14 



M 
11 
189 
267 
352 
444 
544 
052 
767 

m 

1,010 
1. 160 
1,300 
1,152 
1, 611 
1,778 1 
I, 052 2, 
2,133 
2,322 
2,519 
2,722 
2, 033 3. 



16 



IS 



70 
148 
233 
326 
426 
533 
648 
770 
DUO 
1,037 
1. 181 
1,333 
1,493 
1,659 
1,833 
2,015 



267 2, 400 2, 533 
2,744 
2,963 
3, 189 



20 



22 



78 
163 

216 

:«* 

463 

678 
700 
830 
967 
1,111 
1,263 
1,422 
1,589 
1,763 
1,944 
2,133 



2, 204 2, 330 



2,604 
2,815 
3,033 

3, 269 3, 422 3, 585 3, 743 3, 013 



92 
192 
300 
416 
637 
667 
Si 13 
948 
1, 100 
1,269 
1, 426 
1,600 
1, 781 
1,970 
2,166 
2,370 
2,581 
2,800 
3 025 
3,259 
3,600 



26 



100 

208 

323 

444 

674 

710 

855 
1,010 
1, 16 
1,333 
1, 507 
1,688 
1,888 1, 
2 074 
2, 

2,488 
2,707 
2,933 
3, 168 
3,408 
3.657 



268 2, 



107 
222 
344 
474 

en 

756 

907; 

1,067[ 
1,233 
1,407 
1,589 
1,778 
974 
2,178 
389 
2,607 
2,833 
3.067 
3,307 
3,556 
3,811 
4,074 



Add 

for 
each 
addi- 
tional 
2 leet 

of 
width 



7 
IS 
22 
30 

37 

45 
62 
59 
67 
74 
32 
89 
96 
104 
111 
119 
12S 
133 
141 
148 
166 
163 



Add 
where 
slope 
is Hi 

on 1 



16 
30 
46 
B7 
91 
118 
150 
186 
224 
267 
313 
363 
426 
474 
634 
694 
667 
740 
815 
894 



Add 
where 
slope 
is 2 
on 1 



4 

15 
33 
59 
93 
133 
181 
237 
300 
370 
448 
534 
626 
726 
852 
918 
1,068 
1, I'J6 
1,334 
1,480 
1,630 
1,788 



note.— For fills under 2 feet allow 20 percent for 
2 feet allow 15 percent. 



REFERENCE DATA 31 



Table XVII.— Gyratory rock crushers 



Size No 


Dimensions, receiving 
spider openings 
(inches) 


Capacity in tons 
per hour varying 
with character or 
rock 


Horse- 
power for 
crusher, 
elevator, 
and 

screen 


Approxi- 
mate 
we igiit 

c-f 
crusher 
(pounds) 


Each 
about 


Both 
about 


Tons 


To pass 
[Jinrin>[iT 

ring 
(inches) 


2 


S x22 


8 x 44 


5- 10 


2W 


12- IS 


10,000 


3 


8Kx24 


8J^x 48 


10- 20 




20- 25 


15,000 


4 


9 X 27 


9 x 54 


14- 80 


m 


25- 30 


23, 500 


fi 


12 X 35H 


12 x 71 


25- 50 


m 


30- 50 


32,000 


e 


12M X 37 


12H* 74 


45- 90 


3 


40- 60 


44,000 


7H_ 


14 X44 


14 x 88 


90-liO 




75-125 


67,500 


8 


19 3 60 


19 X12Q 


130-225 


4 


100-150 


100, 000 


10 


25HX72 


25^ X 144 


400-600 


5 


176-250 


180,000 



Table XVin.— Jaw rock crushers 



Jaw opening (inches) 



Weight on 

skids 
(pouiidsl 



Horse- 
power 
required 



Capacity (cubic yards per hour) ! 
for indicated ring size product 
(inches) 



N 



m 



10 X 10 
9 X 20.. 
12 X 20. 
IS X 20. 
4 X40.. 
9 X40.. 
18 X3S- 
21 X38. 



4,700, 
9,800 
9.900 
10,200 
8,500 
14,000 
29,000 

30,000 



18-25 
25-35 
20-35 
25-86 
35-50 
40-53 
00-90 
60-90 



7 
S 



1 Average capacities shown may vary 25 percent according to character of material 



67 



Table XIX A, — Bituminous road materials 



Material 


Source 


Form 


Grade designa- 
tion—tempera- 
ture r . appiu o 


Remarks 


Cutback asphalts (RC and 
MC). 


Product of refining crude 
petroleum oils contain- 
ing asphalts. 


Liquids— asphalt residues 
Quiced with more vola- 
tile petroleum distillates. 


Rapid cur ins 
S.C-Q 50-120 
-1 £0-120 
-2 100-175 
-3 150-200 
-A 17.5-250 
-5 175-250 


Naphtha (highly volatile), 
evaporating quickly, leaving 
asphalt cement binder, per- 
mits early use of surface. 








Medium caring 
MC-0 60-120 
-1 80-125 
-2 160-200 
-3 175-250 
-4 175-250 
-5 200-275 


Kerosene (less volatile) docs 
not evaporate so quickly and 
cures more slowly than KC 
types. 


AsphaltJc road oils (3C)_.. 


Product of reflining crude 
petroleum oils contain- 
ing asphalt. 


Liquids— low volatile oils 
left or blended with as- 
phalt residues near end 
of refining process. 


Slow curing 
SC-0 50-120 
-1 60-120 
-2 120-180 
-3 175-250 
-4 200-275 
-S 200-275 
-8 250-M0 


Penetration 200. 



3 



Asphaltlc cements (AC) or 
Paving asphalts. 


Product of refining crude 
petroleum oils contain- 
ing asphalts. 


Semiliquiiis or solids 


AC-1 25O-S50 
-2 250-350 
-3 250-350 
Also graded by 
penet.rai ions. 


Penetrations 30 to 100 used for 
eraek and joint fillers. 


Powdered asphalt (PA) 


Product of refining crude 
petroleum oils contain- 
ing asphalt. 


Hard" and solid asphalts 
ground to powder. 




Used with SC oils to product) 
extra tough road surfaces. 




Asphalt emulsions (AF,) _ _ . 


Asphalt cements in water 
with ait emulsifying 
agent. 




Rapid, medium, and 
stow sating 
BS-l 60-120 

M5-1 60-120 
-2 60-120 
-3 60-120 
6S-1 60-120 
-2 50-120 


Freezing destroys emulsion. 

(Penetration and surlace trcat- 
]_ mcnts. 

|Koad and plant mixes with 
1 coarse aggregate, 

]Road and plant mixes with 
f fine aggregate. 




Road tar (KT) priming oils. 


All road tars are products 
o( coking bituminous 
coal. 




RT-1 60-125 
-2 60-125 
-3 SO-150 


IVaterproofs surfaces prepara- 
tory to placing other bitu- 
minous surfaces. 






All road tars are products 
of coking bituminous 
coal. 






Road mixes and patching. 






-6 80-150 
-6 80-150 
-7 150-225 



31 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



1 



»ll 

» I °, 
■c £ 

a.S a 
► — 



SHI! 

as esm* fi- g 



r 



£ " 1C' 

ill 



li 



PS 



REFERENCE DATA 31 
Table XIX B — Typical users) of asphaltic materials 



Purpose or use 



Grade or designation 



Rapid 
curing 



Dust palliative 

Prime coat"*: 

Tightly bonded sur- 
faces 

Loosely bonded fine 

grained surfaces 

Loosely bonded coarse 

grained surfaces 

Real and carpet coats: 
With or without light 

sand cover.--- 

Coarse sand cover 

Clean M-ineb aggre- 
gate cover 

Clean Ji-ineh aggre- 
gate cover 

Clean «-ineh Aggregate 

cover 

Clean 

gate cover... 

Graded gravel aggre- 
gate cover — 

Gravel mulch 

Road mix: 

Open graded aggregate: 

Band.- - 

Maximum diame- 
ter 1 inch, high 
percentage pass- 
ing 10 mesh . 

Macadam aggre- 
gate - 

Dense graded aggre- 
gate; 
High percentage 
passing 200 mesh 
Maximum diame- 
ter 1 inch, high 
percentage 
ing 200 mesh 



RC-0 
KC-1 



RC-2 



HC-3 



RC-4 



RC-5 



Medium 



MC-0,-1,-2 



MC-0 



MC-1 



MC-2 



Slow 
curing 



SC-»,-l.-2 



SC-1 



8C-2 



SC-3 



MC-2, -3 



RC-1,-2 



RC-2, -3 



MC-(, -5 

MM,-! 
MC-2 



MC-3 



MC-3, -4 



MC-2 



Paving 
asphalts 
with pene- 
tration 1 
of- 



RC-3 
SC-2 



150. am 



150-20:1 



SC-2 



SC-2,-3 



MC-2, -3 

i Penetrations of 100, 120, ISO, and 200 show increasing softness or fluidity. Pene- 
trations of 85, 70, 80, SO, 40, etc., show increasing hardness or solidity. Road oil SC-6 
(with high viscosity) and the softest paving asphalts both have penetrations of about 

m 

71 



31 CORPS or ENGINEERS 



Table XIX B. — Typical uses of asphaltic materials. — Continued 



jrurfM>se or use 


Orado or designation 


Itapid 
curing 


Medium 
ci triiii^ 


Slow 
Hiring 


raving 

with tierie. 
t ration 
of- 


Cold patch: 

Opyn graded afgrcgalti 
Deti*e Eroded aggregate 

Cold bid plant jni>.: 

0|jeD graded aggregate: 

Q nr ,A 


KC-2 

EC-2,-;i 

BC-3 
EC-1,-5 


MC-3 
MO-2 


SC-3 
SC-2 






Masiiuum diame- 
ter 1 inch, high 
percentage pass- 
ing 10 mesh. ^ 

Macadam aggre- 
gate - 




SC-3 









Dense graded aggre- 
gate: 
FJ igh percentage 
j.>assfiig 200 mesh 


MC-3, -4 

MC-4 
MC-0 


SC-3, -4 

8C-1 
SC-I 

sc-o 




1*r\ i i u.Lim diazn e~ 
ter 1 inch, me- 
dian percentage 
passing 200 mesh. 
Aggregate prsooating 
followed w ith asphalt 

Hot laid plant mix 

Penetration macadam; 
Cold weather 






iso-aw 


KC-i, -5 
KO-5 






100-200 
40-150 



















REFERENCE DATA 

Section II 
BRIDGES AND STREAM CROSSINGS 

11 32. General Data, 

Table XX.— Commercial sizes of timber in inches 



2X 4 


2X8 


2X s 


2x10 


2X 12 


21 14 


2X 16 






3X8 


3X10 


3x12 


3 X 14 


Si 16 


4 !i 


4x0 


4x8 


4x10 


4X12 


4 X 14 


4 X 1& 




6X6 


6x8 


6x10 


n s iii 


6x14 


6 X 16 






8X8 


8 X 10 


8X 12 


8X14 


8X10 








10X10 


10 X 12 


10X14 


10 X lfi 










12x12 


12X14 


12X18 












14x14 


14X16 














10 X 16 



Note —Ordinary lengths are 12 to 20 feet. Bills of material show 
number of pieces, cross section, length, kind, grade, and surfacing, 
as 4— «" x 12" x 16' yellow pine (TP), No. 1, rough (Rgh). 
Dimensions before surfacing are given. 

Table XXI. — Design and reconnaissance data 



Design of new bridge 



Safety factors: i 

Wood 

Steel 

Impact allowable: 

Wood 

Steel '.- 

S tringer e (Ticio ncy (sam c 
for both wood and 
steel, except in large 
and important bridg- 
es)." 

Dead load. 



1.7S 

None except 25 percent for 
abutments. 
25 

1= 



(£+125) 

(30 percent (oven number 
ot stringers well distrib- 
uted) . 

SO percent (odd number of 
stringers well distrib- 
nted). 

Compute (first assuming 
a dead load and check- 
ing back on it). 



Examination of existing 
structures 



4.0. 
2.2. 

25 percent. 

25 (MByuso25per 
J= (£4 t26) wat for srnali 
bridges.) 

SO percent (if reasonably well 
distributed, otherwise less, 
based on any one stringer 
earning more than its pro- 
portional share). 

Generally assumed from data 
in Field Manual (or com- 
puted if time permits). 



i in designing largo and important bridges, which may be used over protracted 
Periods, it will be better to employ the factors of normal civil practice (4.0 for wood 
and 2,2 for steel). ' L is span in feet. > Sea paragraph 36. 



32 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 
Table XXEI.— Typical and critical bridge loads 



Description 



Gross 



weight 
(lbs.) 



A.\lo loads (pounds) 



Front 1 



lllter- 

medi- 
ate 1 



Rear* 



Distance 
in inches 
between — 



ti]ld 



Men in single file- . 

Pack train in single file-- 

Hons cavalry in single fik 

Escort wagon, 4-mule 

Car, motor, heavy . 

Truck, Hi-ton 

Truck, 2M-ton, searchlight. . . . 

Truck, 3-ton, cargo 

Truck, 4-ton, cargo (towing) 
155-mm howltsor 



Tractor, medium, Ml (towing), 
155-mm howitser 

Combat car, M2___: 

Balloon winch, type C-2_ 

Shovel, engineer 

Truck, water purification 

Koad grader, engineer 

Tractor, carrier, engineer 

Tractor, carrier, semitrailer . 



Truck, 7ii-ton, 114 inches from 

and towing . ._ - 

155-mm gun, Ml 

Truck (A A), 120 inclios Irom 

and towing 

S-ioeh A A gun, M2A2 

Tractor, heavy, Ml 

Tank, light', M2A4 

Truck, field servicing, E-2 
(AC) 

Truck, wrecking, F-2 (AC)__. 

Truck, crane, engineer _. 



140 per loot 
tail per toot 
its i>er foot 



5,000 

8,700 

9,000 
1.1, i, r ,IJ 

1J,000 

j 1!!. 500 
1 10. 000 

' 115.000 
1 10, 000 
19,000 
21,000 
20.000 
21, ISO 
15,700 
17,00(1 
18,900 



34, 400 
30.000 

35,600 
17,000 
30,000 
23,000 

34,000 
32.000 
33,400 



1.800 
1,400 
2,200 
4. OiTtl 

3,eoo 

B. 100 



6,700 
5,200 



3,200 
4.300 

e,soo 

5,700 
6,200 

5,200 

10,000 



1.000 



9,000 



9,500 
11,200 

6, 760 
6,000 
4.500 
3, 700 



11. son 

8,800 
14,400 
9,700 

12, 500 
7,300 



8,000 

10,000 



8.500 
8,500 



13,200 
10,000 



13,200 
10,000 



13,600 
8,600 



7,800 
7,700 
10,900 



13, 100 
12, 160 



13. 100 

12, lU 
22,500 



" Distance in inches Iwtween axle of towed load and last ailc of prime mover. 
! Length of normal ground contact of crawler tread. 

1 Can be carried on H-10 timber trestle bridge with spans loss than 20 foot. Medium 
tank requires, bridges built for 11-20 loads. 



74 



REFERENCE DATA 



32 




32 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




Fwchb 39.— Design loading of American Association of State High- 
way Officials. 



Table XXIII. — Classes of timber trestle bridges. 



Class of 


Class of 


loading 


bridge 


B-10 


U 


11-15 


A 


H-20 


AA 



For division bridges 

For corps and army bridgas up to 25 feet in si>an 
For corps and arm? bridges over 25 feet in span. 



76 



REFERENCE DATA 



32 



».tqtai_ gross HCKSHr 




04 


w 








-9j» 



X 



EKH SrSR *ME[L HIS TH WOTH 
Of J/J" PER TON OF OBOSS LOAD 



Figube 40.— Distribution of wheel loads fon design. 

Table XXIV. — Capacity of masonry arch bridges 

[Crown thickness required Tor all loads up to and Including 10- ton axles or 20-toa 

t:inks] 



Span 


Thick ness o I arch ri ng at crown 


Span 


Th iek nsss of arch ri ng at crown 


Brick in 
cement 


Plain 
concrete 


Flrst- 

chisa cut 
stone 
(ashlar) 


Brick In 
cement 


Plain 

concrete 


First- 
class cut 

SI una 
(ashlar) 


Feet 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Feel 


Inches 


Inches 


Indies 


10 


12 


3 


S 


50 


28 


22 


20 




iM 


9 


9 


55 


27 


23 


20H 


15 


IS 


10 


10 


so 


28 


24 


21 


17H 


16^ 


11 


11 


C5 


29 


28 


22 


20 


17H 


13 


12 


70 


SO 


27 


23 


HM 


IS 


14 


13 


75 


32 


28 


24 


25 


19 


15 


14 


SO 


34 


29 


25 


I7H 


20 


16 


15 


85 


35 


SO 


26 


30 


21 


IT 


16 


90 


36 


32 


28 


35 


22 


IS 


17 


95 


38 


34 


29 


40 


23 


20 


IS 


100 


40 


36 


30 


45 


25 


21 


10 











281:736° 



77 



32-33 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

Table XXV. — Time of construction, of bridges 



type 



Footbridge, M 1935. _. 

Kapok footbridge: 
Assembling en 



Shoving across. 



Ponton bridges: 

Light bridge, M1938.. 

Heavy bridge, Mi940_. 
Standard timber trestle 
bridge H-15 6 by 8 inch 
posts with wood strlng- 



Or steel strinws.. 
Portable steel bridge: 
11-10 



H-20 

Spar bridge. 

Spar trestle bridge 
Pile brldgo 



Crib bridge 

Itailruail bridge-. 



Maximum 

length 
[■liosidviYil 



432 feet.. 



2fi* feet.. 



_do_. 



8 bays, 120 

feet. 
200 feet— ... 

72 feet 



125 feet 

40 feet 

do 

7 bays, IDS 
feet, 20- 
foot piles.. 

7 bays, 105 
feet. 

do ., 



IVrsnmifl 



43 men.. 

30 men.. 
90 men.. 

LOS men. 
145 men. 

40 men I. 
42 



60 men... 
40 men... 

do.... 



100 men. 
200 men. 



Variable, 

40 -aw. 



Average time 



I hour 

Sft minutes 

20-40 minutes 

4-6 hours 



12 hours 1 - 
1-2 hours... 



4-fi hours 

] if !ur^. 
b liours. 



days, 
4 days. 

2 months to 4 
days. 



Remark:: 



See tshle 
XXXVIII 

Successfva 

bays. 
Launched aa 

a unit. 

Field condi- 
tions. 
Do. 



One hour less 
it crane is 
used. 



I A stiff bottom and standard bridge memben aro assumed. If mom Iters have to 
lie assembled out of smaller material, it may he necessary to add men for extra work 
or to increase timo allowance. Work on abutments (but not approaches) considered, 

1 Including time for assembling standard trestles. 

New. — Material is assumed unloaded on the spot, with average 
conditions. Extra time or men must be provided, where necessary, 
for work on approaches, cutting of hanks, and unloading. 

■ 33. Approaches, Abutments, and Foundations. — a. Bridge 
approaches. — (1) Provide straight road for at least 50 yards 
at each end of the bridge with a slight upgrade toward the 
bridge becoming level at abutments. 



78 



REFERENCE DATA 33 

(2) Build road surface 1 inch above the bridge flooring ini- 
tially. If traffic develops holes in the road pavement about 
2 feet from the end of the bridge, these must be kept filled 
with tamped gravel. 

b. Abutments. 







L END 0AM— — " 










loGE SPAT— zri&i 







FOOT 




WITH SOFT ROADWAY 




WITH FIRM ROADWAY 
Fwoue 41. — Abutments for simple stringer hridgea. 

'A 














BRIDOtSSAT 



t 



PLAN 



PLANK- 



v cr 

a 





33 



COFPS OF ENGINEERS 



c. Design of foundations and footings. — (1) Compute the 
required area of bearing on the ground (see table CXLI) to 
carry total load. If mudsills are required, assume abutment 
sill provides no bearing and mudsills provide full area. 

(2) Select number, length, and width of mudsills and test 
against bending using formula or table below. 

(a) Formula. 

where 

K— projection of mudsill beyond bridge seat or trestle sill in 
feet. 

C=constant, depending on material of mudsill. 

P =safe pressure in pounds per square foot on bottom of 

footing course or safe bearing power of soil. 
f=thickness in Inches of mudsills. 

(b) Footing material. 

Values of C 

1-2-4 concrete 7.0 

Limestone 11. 5 

Timber 20. 

The value' of C= V//3 where / is the safe allowable bending 
stress for the kind and condition of material used as a mud- 
sill. For timber with f— 1,875 pounds per square inch C will 
be 25. However, the value of C=20 for /=1,200 is sufficiently 
accurate for ordinary use for inspection or design where tim- 
ber may be under water or in contact with muddy ground. 



Table XXVI, — Safe unsupported projection (K) of timber mud- 
sills in" feet (based, on C=20 in formula from (a) above) 



Distributed loud in tons per 
square foot 


Thirkurss c) tinihiT In inch* 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




0.51 


tee 


1.54 


2.06 


% 57 


3.00 


1 


.44 


.B5> 


1.34 


1.79 


2.23 


2.68 


m 


.36 


.73 


1.00 


1.46 


L82 


Z 18 


2 - - 


.31 


.63 


.94 


1.26 


1.57 


1.30 


m. — 


.28 


.5ft 


.S5 


1.13 


1.41 


1.70 




.22 


.44 


.87 


.SO 


Lll 


1.34 



80 



REFERENCE DATA 34 

■ 34. Other Design Criteria.— a. Minimum- vMth of roadway. 

Feet 

Men on foot, single file i% 

Antitank gun 6 

Machine gun carts ±y 2 

One lane for vehicles 10 

Two lanes for vehicles 18 



b. Headroom. — 11 feet, minimum, 14 feet if possible. 

c. Clearance for navigation. — Sufficient for the river traf- 
fic permitted. 

d. Camber. — No camber is required for the usual military 
fixed bridge when In use. "When all settlement has oc- 
curred, the bridge floor should be on a uniform grade from 
abutment to abutment; where the abutments are at the same 
level this grade is horizontal. "Where settlement of founda- 
tions must be allowed for, the footings should be initially as 
much above grade as required; this introduces some camber 
which will disappear as settlement occurs. 

e. The deflection Of the bridge under load should not ex- 
ceed Mmo of the span. 

/, Curbs. — Curbs should be Of 6 by 6 inch timber bolted 
to the outer edges of the flooring. A 4 by 6 inch timber on 
edge or one built up from 2 by 6 inch timbers may be substi- 
tuted. Spikes or lashings may be substituted for the bolts. 

g. Flooring. — Use at least 11-foot lengths for a 10-foot 
roadway. If longer lengths are available, lay diagonally. 
For heaviest traffic provide a flooring of at least two layers 
of 3-inch thickness. For light vehicular traffic use chess or 
flooring of at least 2 -inch thickness. Use at least one spike 
(preferably two) per stringer. Lay dry flooring with 
inch spaces between planks. 

ft. Handrails of Z by 4 inch timber with 4 by 4 inch posts 
3 feet high are desirable outside the curbs. They may be 
knee-braced to floor planks extending 2-3 feet beyond guard 
rails. 



81 



35 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



35. BENBINC- 



Criterion for maximum bending. 



Distance r = W„X-^iM- 43) 




\?£ < FACTOR * L , M MAX IS AT l£ FROM <k 
W„ 




IFi^FACTORxL, M^IS AT <E. 

FiGrrai 43.— Positions of heavier axle load (W H ) on bridge to 
produce maximum bending. 

Table XXVTI.— Values of load factor (see fig, 43) 



proportion in;; 


Value of factor 


W K -Wr 


0.686 


Wx=2Wr 


.551 


W»-3Wr 


.535 


Wa-iW, 


.527 



82 



35-36 



b. Bending moment. — (1) The formulas for bending mo- 
ment are — 

WL 

Af— (concentrated center load WO 

4 

WL 

Af= (total load W uniformly distributed over span IV) 

8 

W (4a+6) 

M= (uniform, moving load W partially distributed) 

8 

where 

Jtf=moment in inch-pounds at center of a simple beam. 
T7=total load in pounds. 

L=span in inches. 

b=Iength of load in inches. 
L-b 

a= , or distance in inches of each end of load from 

2 

nearest end of span. 
(2) Resisting moment must be equal to or greater than 
the total maximum external bending moment. The for- 
mulas for resisting moments are — 

M=/S (all beams) 
fbd 3 

M=- (rectangular timbers) 

6 

fd" 

M= (round timbers) 

10 

where 

M— resisting moment in inch- pounds. 
/= maximum working fiber stress for material (see ch. 4) . 
6=breadth of rectangular timber in inches. 
d=depth of rectangular timber in inches or diameter of 
round timber. 

S=seetion modulus, l/y in inches cubed (in. 3 ) from hand- 
books. 

■ 36. Stringer Strength, — a. Design and check strength of 
stringers, using the following formulas, diagrams, and tables. 
Impact, dead load, and stringer efficiency are not considered. 
I-beams listed are the Ugh test -weight standard. Values of /: 
1,600 (rectangular timber) ; 1,000 (green logs); 18,000 (steel). 

83 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Iff J 



I Ml 



2 1 



I I 

I I, 

i i 
1 1 



pi 

III 



■5 ^ ,Q 

B « - 

£H & 
m " o 

B f ■ 

ft I 

If! 



!s § 

i a -a 



^ t ■§ 

it 5 



If/fg 

Hit 
ill 



I 



£S Pi 



2 8 



5 a 



g i g" « | § 



o * o 
S S3 8" 



188SSS 

3 3 S 3 S S 



LIS 

~ ,.: n' 



SSlfffifSfl 

S S S (5* S R £ S 2 «S S 



85SISI85SS 



1^ if « o 



I S g § 8 

S3 W s m 



g S g S S 8 8 ! 

^ n «j s> & ci 

iM* O 00 t*J 50 15" "5 ■ 



gsss§§§ 

«j t-" it «J V *t rtt 



^" V m n ti 



§ ^ § ri 
pf rf of 



■ s s 



« li to os 



REFERENCE DATA 



36 



Table XXIX 



.— Ctmceitfraited M/e loads in pounds for rectangular 
vjcoden beams for each, inch of vMth 



Span 
(feel) 



Depth or beam (inuhes) 



6 8 10 12 H 18 IS 20 22 24 



2.._ 

6... 

S... 
10.. 
12.. 

w 
ie.. 

18.. 
20.. 
22 
24_. 



710 
358 
237 
177 
1+3 
118 



1. 126 



1.S00 



MM 

633 
400 
320 
267 
228 
200 



1,425 
950 
710 
570 
475 

m 

356 
318 
284 



1.875 



2.250 



1,480 
1,110 
888 
740 
635 
556 
494 
444 
404 
371 



2,135 
1,600 
1,280 
1,006 
014 
800 
710 
640 
581 
533 



2, 625 



3,000 



2, 175 
1,745 
1, 454 
1,245 
1,090 
068 
871 
792 
727 



2,845 
2,279 
1,896 
1,628 
1,424 
1,264 
1.137 
1,035 

MS 



3, B75 



3,750 



2,880 
2.400 
2,055 
1,800 
1,600 
1,440 
1,308 
1.200 



3,550 
2,960 
2,580 
2,225 
1,975 
1,778 
1,617 
1,481 



4, 7 
4,260 
3,(555 
3,200 
2,848 
2,560 
2, 328 
2. 132 



Note —Stringers on simple end supports. Computations based on 
net sections. Figures above heavy line* determined by computa- 
tions of horizontal shear. Figures below heavy lines may be doubled 
for a uniformly distributed load. 



Table XXX, 



-Safe concentrated loads in pounds for round timber 
stringers {simple end supports) 



Span 
(feel) 



Diameter nf beam (Inches) 



2 3 



10 12 14 18 18 



2.. 
3.. 
4... 
5__ 
6... 
8.. 
10.. 
12_ 
14. 
16. 
18. 
20. 
22. 
24. 



1,048! 
698 
524 
410 
340 
262 
200 
175 
150 
131 
116 
105 
96 



1,366 
1,022 


1, 768 


2,808 


820 


1,412 


2, 245 


684 


1,178 


1,871 


611 


884 


1,404 


410 


708 


1,123 


342 


589 


035 


292 


506 


802 


256 


442 


702 


22S 


393 


626 ! 


20S 


353 




186 


322 


511 


171 


295 


469 



3. 350 
2,760 
2,002 
1,675 
1,395 
1,198 
1,048 
931 
838 
763 



6,544 
5,462 
4,088 
3,272 
2,732 
2, 340 
2,044 
1,818 
1,636 
1,489 
1,365 



11,310 
9,425 
7,069 
6,665 
4,713 
4,065 
3,534 
3, 142 
2,827 
2,570 
2,358 



22,340 
16,754 
13, 404 
11,170 
9,574 
8,377 
7,447 
6,702 
6,093 
6,585 



31,808 
23,856 
19,086 
15,904 
13, 632 
11,928 
10,603 
9,543 
8,675 
7,952 



Note.— Based on an allowable stress of 1,000 pounds per square 
inch. 

87 



w 



36-37 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



b. The following formulas give the allowable loads on par- 
ticular stringers. An allowance for impact of 25 percent is 
included. 

(1) Rectangular wooden stringers: 



w _/f \bd> 4uL 
\22.5/ L 10 



(2) Standard I-Beams of minimum web thickness: 

: 930^-0.4 uL 

(3) Standard I-beams of average web thickness: 

W=1050^-0.4uL 



For uniformly distributed loads, the total load given above 
may be increased to the amount given by the following 
formula: 

where 

I,=strlnger span in feet. 
N— number of I-beams. 

r= length of tank or tractor track in contact with the floor, 
In feet. 

U= total uniformly distributed safe load of length T in 
pounds. 

W=alIowable concentrated load in pounds. 
b=total width of stringers of depth d in inches. 
<f=depth of stringer in inches. 

/=allowable bending stress in pounds per square inches 
(usually 1,000 to 1,800; see table CXUII). 

w=uniform dead load of span in pounds per linear foot 
(see table I 



■ 37. Dead Load. — In hasty design of short span bridges it is 
usually sufficient to add an extra stringer to take care of the 
dead load. For long spans using light stringers it may be nec- 
essary to add 25 percent of the number needed for the live load. 



REFERENCE DATA 37-38 

Table XXXI. — Dead loads, highway bridge decks 



Founds per linear foot 



Type of stringer 
TypeoMloor... 
One- way.. - 
Two-way... 



Wowl_. 
Vc.od., 
250-350 
350-500. 



Steel... 
Wood.. 

1! 10-700. 



Steel, 
Concrete. 
S00 up. 
1,300 up. 



Note, — The figures on concrete are based on a slab thickness of 6 
inches and weight at 150 pounds per cubic foot. The weight of 
timber is abowt 40 pounds per cubic foot. 

| 38. Stringer Arrangement and Distribution. 




FIguke 46. — Transverse cross section of typical stringer bridge. 



a. For design the proportion cf the wheel load on any one 
stringer is: 

8 T N 

where 

W=total number of stringers. 
iS'=stringer spacing in feet center to center. 

b. For a simple one-track stringer bridge, with an even 
number of stringers, it is considered that stringers can be 
placed to allow a stringer efficiency of 90 percent to be used 
in design. For reconnaissance the determination of stringer 
efficiency is a matter of judgment. If the flooring is satis- 
factory, assume a stringer efficiency of 80 percent. Tables 
XXXV and XXXVI provide a quick means of determining 

89 



38^1 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



bridge capacities for various classes of stringers. For the 
worst conditions, figure the live load supported by stringers 
on the basis that the flooring acts as a simple beam between 
stringers. 

■ 39. Shear.— The maximum vertical shear develops at the 
supports and occurs as the maximum load passes that point. 
In timber the maximum horizontal shear occurs when the 
load is at a distance from the support of three times the beam 
depth, or at the center when the span is six times the depth or 
less. Horizontal shear per unit of horizontal stringer cross 
section area is equal to the reaction at the support divided 
by the vertical stringer cross section and multiplied by 3/2. 
This is important only for short spans. 

■ 40. Caps and Sills.— The width, ordinarily equal to the 
diameter of the posts, should be the least dimension. Investi- 
gate special and doubtful cases for shear and crushing of posts 
into cap or sill. 

■ 41. Posts. — Posts are designed as columns, using a, b, or 
c below. The L/d ratio must not exceed 40; L and d must 
be given in same units (both in inches or both in feet) . 

a. Where L/d ^11 

p=s (Using table CXLTTI, this gives a factor 
of safety of 3.) 

b. Where 11 <L/d<K and K=Q.U^¥/s 

_ f AVI fUsing table CXLIH, this 
p ~% 3,\Kd/ J gives a factor of safety 
of 2.25.) 

c. Where IVd >K and Jf=0.64Vfi/s 

j)i=1.2X0.274 7 r 5, - (This gives a factor of 
safety of 2.5.) 

d. For round columns replace d in the above formulas by 
70/79 times the diameter. 

e. For reconnaissance investigations use the formula: 



90 



41 



where 

i=unsupported length of the column, 
d— least dimension of the column. 
E=modulus of elasticity. 

s=umt working stress for compression parallel to the grain 

(table CXLITD, 
JE=0.64 E/s (for select merchantable Douglas fir if=22.5) 
p=allowable unit load. 
p=total load=pA. 
A— cross- sectional area. 

Table XXXTL— Values of the expression ^^i^Ay^ 



Values of 



— riitiu of length to least dimension in rectangular timbers 



K 


11 


12 


13 


14 


IS 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 




a 8" 

.76 


























0.67 
.76 
.82 
.86 
























12- 

18 




0.67 
.76 
.81 
.86 






















.83 
.87 
.80 
.02 
.94 


0.B7 
.76 
.80 
.85 




















14- - 


0.67 
.74 
.80 


















16 - — 

16— 

17 


0.67 
.74 
















.89 
.92 




0.67 














.89 














18 


.96 


.9* 


.91 


.88 


.81 


,79 


.73 


0,67 












19— 

20- 

a 


.97 
.98 
.98 


.95 
.93 
.97 


.93 
.94 
.96 


.90 
.92 
.93 


.87 
.89 
.92 


.83 
.86 
.88 


.78 
.83 
.86 


.73 
.78 
.82 


0.67 
73 
.77 


0.87 
.72 


0.67 






22..- 

23. 


.98 
.99 


.97 
.98 


.96 

.97 


.94 

.98 


.93 
.94 


.91 

.92 


.88 

,90 


.86 
.87 


.81 
.84 


.77 
.81 


.72 
.77 


0.67 

.72 


0.67 



Note — This table can also be used lor timber columns not rectan- 
gular if A being equivalent to 0.289 L/r where r is the least radius 
of gyration of the section. 



91 



41-42 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Table XXXIII.— Safe loads, square wood posts, and for various 
values of L/d in formula of paragraph 41e 

[Fiber stress assumed to be 1.200 In the formula. Proportionate 
increases or decreases should be used for higher or lower stresses] 



Size (inches) 



Length 
(feet) 



d 



Sale unit 
working 
stress p 



Safe load P 
fur post= 
pA 



4 by 4. 
4 by 4. 
4 by 4. 
4 by 4. 
4 by 4. 
a by fi. 
6 by 6. 
6 by 6. 
6 by 6. 
fi by B. 
6 by 6. 
ObyB. 
8 by 8. 
8 by S_. 
8 by 8. 
SbyS.. 
8 by 8. 
8 by Si, 
8 by 8 
SbyS. 
8 by 8. 
8 by 8. 



i.oso 

960 
840 
720 
BOO 

1,040 
ABO 
880 
800 
720 
640 
600 

1,020 
980 
900 
840 
780 
720 
660 
600 
640 
480 



17,280 
15,360 
IS, 440 
11,620 
9,600 
37, 440 
34,660 
31, 580 
28, SCO 
25,920 
23,040 
20, 100 
65.280 
61,440 
57, BOO 
63, 760 
49,920 
46,080 
42, 240 
38.400 
34,560 
30,720 



■ 42. Piles. — Construct pile bents in dimensions similar to 
trestle bents. When the height from the bottom is less than 
8 feet no bracing is required. Place bracing above water 
when required. For greater stability batter piles are fre- 
quently used. If the pile rests on a hard stratum it is designed 
as a column. Otherwise determine the safe load by loading 
test piles or by the following rough formulas: 

For piles driven by drop hammer: P= " 



5+1.0 



For piles driven by steam hammer : P= 



2wh 



s+0.1 



92 



REFERENCE DATA 



42-£4 



where 

P=safe load in pounds. 
u>=weight of hammer in pounds. 
ft=height of fall of hammer in feet. 

s= average penetration of the pile under several successive 
blows of the hammer, in inches. 

Table XXXIV. — Bearing power of piles of 1 foot mean diameter 



Character of soil 


Penetra- 
tion 
(feet) 


Probable 
safe load 
fpomuls) 


Character of soil 


Penetra- 
tion 
(feet) 


Probable 
sale load 
(pounds) 




15 


4.500 


Compact sand 


10 


20,000 




30 


io, ooo 




12 


24,000 


Soft clay 


10 


7,000 




15 


JM 




15 


10,000 




20 


36,000 




20 


13,000 




30 


48,000 




30 


20,000 


Sand and gravel. . 


8 


20,000 


Still day __. 


10 


15,000 , 




10 


24,000 




15 


23.(100 




12 


28,000 




20 


30,000 




15 


:u,tMi 




30 


45,000 




20 


43, 000 


Compact sand 


s 


16,000 




SO 


oo.ooo 



Note.— For other pile diameters the sate load will vary in propor- 
tion to the diameter. 



■ 43. Timber Piers. — Make timber piers of trestle, pile, or 
crib construction. They are used when simple bents do not 
provide sufficient support, stability, and stiffness. 

■ 44. Bridge Reconnaissance Form. 

FORM FOR BRIDGE RECONNAISSANCE 



Bridge 

Class 

Sheet No-. 



. . sheets 



Map reference 

Date Party 

(If necessary, use back of sheets, repeat number of headings.) 



Location 

1. Designation of route 

(road, railroad, canal, or stream.) 

. Two towns on route 

Name of nearest town; direction and distance from bridge., 



282736' 



93 



44 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



4 Stream, canal, road, or railroad crossed by bridge. 

5. Local name of bridge 

6. Remarks 



Description of bridge 

7. Type - - " " 

8. Spans — - - - 

9. Total length 

10. Net length — - - " 

11 Total width 

12. Wldm of roadway 

13. clearances. 

f Horizontal 

Above roadway \ vertical — — 

Under roadway 

14. Floor system, 

(a) Flooring 

<tt) Stringers and floor beams — — 

(e) Curbs, handrails , - 

IB. Number and width of sidewalks — - — 

16. Piers 1 

17. ADutments 

18. Wing walls 

t d P3.vi.ntr . , — . — 1 ■ ■ - ■ — ■ 

20, Maximum loads: Now using bridge Reported capacity 

2l! Remarks - - — 



Description of crossing 

fMake plan and profile on extra sheet showing (a) all bridges 
( involved in crossings; (b) bridge being reported on) 



22. One of - bridges involved in crossing. 



23. Character of stream. Maximum depth 



Low water_ 
High water„ 
Observed . 



24. Velocity: Feet per second... — 

25 Floods per year months 

26 Amount and character of debris carried at high water _ 

27! Character of bed and banks of stream 

38. Approaches. stra , gbt lejlgtil wldm height 

cut or All. 

(b) — —.end. Straight length width height 

cut or fill. 

29. Kemarks 

^57 Description" of connecting roadway between several bridges 
involved in crossing 



84 



REFERENCE DATA 



44-45 



Recommendations 

31. List In order of practicability for new construction, 
(File bents, trestle, crib supports, etc.) 

92. Remarks — 



83. Estimate of time required for construction 

34. Troops 

35. Bill of materials (use extra sheet) 

36. Location of construction camp , ... - 

37. Remarks . 



■ 45. Determination of Allowable Loads on Existing 
Bridges, — a. General.— Newer bridges are usually designed on 
the basis of H-loadings (figs. 39 and 40) as follows: 

Main Federal and State highways (including 

strategic highways) H-15 

Principal Stata and county roads H-10 

Older bridges will vary, and no assumption should be made as 
to design basis unless indicated on the bridge or by posted 
sign capacity. For new bridges with heavy concrete or other 
type floors giving 1 wide load distribution, the H-loading (in 
tons) may be exceeded by 50 percent on one-lane bridges, 
and by 100 percent on multiple-lane bridges, by single vehicles 
at steady speeds of 5 m. p, h. For other bridges under same 
conditions the posted capacity should not be exceeded by more 
than 25 percent. Wherever excessive deflections or signs of 
strain appear after trial the posted loads should not be ex- 
ceeded. Assume that flooring and stringers, especially in 
older bridges, are weaker than abutments and intermediate 
supports unless these are obviously damaged or rotted. In 
case of doubt, the following more detailed check methods 
should be employed. 

6. Flooring. — Rule of thumb: For heavy loads, planking 
thickness (inches) should be at least V/ 2 times clear distance 
between stringers (feet) ; minimum permissible thickness is 
2& inches if worn or 2 inches if new. In doubtful cases, way 
planks or a second layer of flooring (spiked down) should be 



95 



45 



CORPS OP ENGINEERS 



added. Investigate floors from below and do not assume 
asphalt surfacing adds any strength. 

C. Stringers.— See paragraphs 36 to 39, inclusive, or tables 
XXXV and XXXVL 

Table XXXV. — Hasty estimation of bridge capacities — steel stringers 



[Number of I-beams required for 1 0-ton single-aria losdl 



Span c. to c. 

(feet) 


Depth and wight of standard 


minimum weight hmms 


6" 
12.5# 


7" 
15.3i 


8" 
18.4# 


9" 
21# 


10" 
2S.4# 


J2" 
31. 8# 


IS" 
42.9* 


18" 
54.7*1 


20" 
05. 4# 


6 


4.2 
5.6 
7.1 

8,6 
10.2 
12.2 
13.6 


2. 9 
4.0 
50 
6.0 
7.2 
8.3 
9.6 
10.0 


2.2 
2.9 
3,7 
4.4 
5.3 
6.1 
69 
7.8 
10. 2 


1.4 
1.9 
2.4 
29 
35 
4.1 
4.6 
5.2 
6.8 
8.6 












8 


1.7 

2.2 
2.6 
3.0 
3.5 
4.0 
4.5 
6.0 
7.6 










10 


1.4 

1.7 
2.0 
2.3 
2.6 
3.0 
3.7 
4.9 
61 








12 








14 - 








Id- 


1.5 
1.7 
1.8 
2.4 
3.1 
3.7 






18 

20, 


LS 
21 
2.5 




25 




30 






1.9 


35 





















Notes. — I. Explanation of use ol table: 

a. To find the safe concentrated load for ordinary traffic moving 
at standard speeds, take the ratio of number of I-beams available to 
tabular value and multiply by 10 tons. 

6. If beams are not minimum weight and ratio of actual weight 
of beams to minimum weight of beams for size can be determined, 
increase the value found in a above by & the percentage of increase 
in weight over minimum weight. Otherwise assume beams are 
minimum and disregard actual weights. 

c. For emergencies, with traffic control guards to Insure reduced 
speeds, only one vehicle on bridge at a time, and no gear shifting 
on bridge, 1% the value found above may be used. 

A. To find the gross truck weight allowable, multiply the safe axle 
load by 1.25. 

2. The above table is based on the following data: 

Dead load of 4-inch plank flooring 10 feet long with two 6- by 
6-lnch curbs plus actual stringer weight, 

25 

Impact on basis of formula: 7= -yrpi^o) (t 6(1X1813 s P an ln 
feet) . 

Stringer efficiency of 80 percent included. 
Safe tensile stress of 18,000 p. s. 1. used. 



96 



DATA 



46-46 



Tahle XXXVI.— Hasty estimation of bridge capacities-— wooden 
stringers 

[Total stringer widths in inches required ffir 10-ton single-aide load] 



Span c. to c. (feet) 




Depth of stringers 




fi" 


8" 


10" 


12" 


14" 


8 

10 


62 
82 


34 
46 
B0 


22 
30 
38 


15 
21 
26 
32 
38 
44 
50 

S3 


12 
15 

20 
24 
27 
32 
36 
42 






72 


46 
54 






16 






64 
74 

84 

























Notes. — 1. Explanation of use Of table: 

a. To find the sale concentrated load for ordinary traffic moving at 
standard speeds, take the ratio of stringer width available to tabulaT 
value and multiply by 10 tons. 

b. In emergency, with traffic control guards to Insure reduced speeds 
only one vehicle on the bridge at a time, and no gear shifting on 
bridge, 1% this value can be used. 

c. To find the gross truck weight allowable, multiply the single 
safe axle load by 1.25. 

2. The above table is based on the following data: 

a. Dead load of 4-inch plank flooring 10 feet long with two 6 by 6- 
Inch curbs plus actual stringer weight. 

b. Impact of 25 percent and stringer efficiency of SO percent in- 
cluded. 

c. Fiber stress of 1600 p.s.i. used. If actual allowable fiber stress ia 
less, decrease aUowable load on proportional basis. 

fZ. Trestles. — For caps and sills see paragraph 40, For posts 
use table XXXIII and table XXXIV for piles. 

e. Other parts. — If sufficient time is available, continue the 
investigation to the other parts of the structure. 

■ 46. Suspension Bridges. — a. Formulas for determining 
stresses in cables. 

(1) For a uniform load: 

.sW^+ied 3 



r= _S/2 _ 

s e~~ 



Sd 



(2) For a concentrated load (approximate) : 



' L 
Ad 



(s+w)J a 



97 



46-47 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



where 

T=maximum cable tension (in all cables at one tower). 

IP=concentrated live load on bridge. 

jS=sum of all live and dead loads on bridge cables (including 

impact and all other loads) . 
Z.=span in feet between towers. 

<J=defIection (sag) of cable in feet at midpoint below tops 
of towers. 

0=angle made with the horizontal by tangent to cable at 
tower. 

b. Formula for length of cables between towers. 

L+ 3L (a PP roximation based on a circular curve). 

c. Formula for length of slings (omitting any allowance for 
camber) , 

-(">■ 

where 
3f=length of sling, 

z=distance from middle point of bridge to sling. 

■ 47. Footbridge Equipment, M1935. — One unit makes 432 
feet of footbridge or 144 feet of wide bridge. Standard load for 
a 1 %-ton truck is 9 bays or 108 feet of footbridge. An infan- 
try rifle company can cross on this bridge in 3 minutes dur- 
ing daylight or in 10 minutes at night. 




Figtibh 47,— Construction or lootbridge by successive bays. 



93 




47 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




Figure 49, — Assembled footbridge using guy lines. 



Table XXXVII— Cables and guy lines for footbridge 



[*\ T ot applicable to wide brides] 



Current 
in main 
channel 

of 
stream 
(m.p.b.) 


Maxi- 
mum 
practica- 
ble bridge 
length 
with 
anchor 
cable 
(Icct) 


Anchor 
cable 
rfliLirvl 

for 
bridge 
length 
over 
(feet) 


Kridlo line?, 
anchor cable 
to bridge 


Float 
cable 
required 

for 
bridge 
length 
over 
(leet) 


Guy lined required both 
Hides bridge to bank 
when anchor cable 
not used 





i,ooo 


500 


Each 10 boys. 





Only required over 100 
feet, 

100-300 feet at end. 






















S0O-SO0 feet at end and 












center. 


1 


700 


300 


Kachobsys... 


300 


Less than 100 (eot at end. 
100-300 feet at end and 
each 6 bays. 


2 


500 


200 


Eaeb4bays... 


200 


At end ami each 4 bays. 


3 


350 


100 


Each 2 bays.. - 


100 


A t end and each 2 hays. 




200 


(0 


Each bay, 


a 


A nchor cable nHju ired. 



' Any length. 

100 



REFERENCE DATA 



47-48 



Table XXXVTH. — Number of IZ-foot footbridge bays constructed 
■per minute 



Current (m. p, h.) 


Day 


Night 








2 to 3 


2 

VA 
1 


1 

M 

H 


Over 3 







Note.— .These rates require 40 to 50 trained men (depending upon 
the current) under service conditions with a good site. (See table 
XXV.) 



■ 48. Kapok Footbridge,— One unit of this bridge consists of 
twenty-two 12-foot sections, or 264 feet, and can be trans- 
ported on two IV2 -ton trucks. 



101 




REFERENCE DATA 



49 





103 



45 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



n 



n 



i-i — < { • « sr 

1 ■ * K""V — +~{ (■-5 L 

l ■ i-S\ s / ] i 5 i 

! E t 7r _ n — HI S~" s 

! « "S i/ f S r* 





Figure B6 — Rftft draw span in floating bridge. 
Table XXXLX — Characteristics of standard -ponton equipage 



Heavy 
pun lira 
battalion, 
Ml 934 



Norma] load _ tons. 

Reinforced load do... 

Length of bridge per bridge platoon...- feet. 

Construction time: 

Number of men 

Hours _ 

Spans: 

Abutment to trestle - ___ feet. 

Trestle to trestle do... 

Trestle to hinge _ _ do. . _ 

Effective length of hinge sill raft. do.... 

Ponton to ponton do... 

Number of boats: 

Per bridge platoon 

Total per bridge company 

Total per battalion 

Characteristics of boats: 

Weight pounds . 

Length feet. 

Width, maximum do.... 

Sato buoyancy (freeboard 9 inches) pounds.. 

One span of flooring do.... 

Net buoyancy' do.... 



i 23 
46 
•250 

146 



16 
16 
IB 
4-12 
16 

12 
24 
48 

4,000 
33 
«H 
27, 100 
4,100 
23,100 



Light 
ponton 
company, 

Ml SON 



10 

20 
'260 

103 



15 
15 
15 
4-12 

1&H 

12 
36 



1,460 

28 
BM 
15,000 
2,600 
12,400 



> footnotes at end ol table. 



106 



49 



Table XXXLX. — Characteristics of standard ponton equipage.— Can. 





Heavy 
ponton 
battalion, 
M1024 


Light 
ponton 

c w 


Trestles: 








Number per bridge platoon 




i 


4 






25 


20 


Weight _ 




• 1,690 


1,060 


Width of roadway (clear) 


.feet.. 


11J4 


10 


Number of balk under roadway per span, nc 


rmal eon- 






struction. . ..... 







8 


Ferrying capacity, men per boat, etclusive ol o 




63 


• 25 






7to9 


•5 to 7 



1 Loads over 20 tons must be at Intervals of over 32 feet. 

'Four trestles are used in this bridge in normal construction. 
Using all basic quantities, lengths given can be built Unless all 
trestles can he used, length of single bridge that can be built by 
several platoons of equipage end to end is considerably less than 250 
feet times the number of units employed. In this case exact length 
of bridge that can be buiit must bo computed using only number of 
spans which can be actually employed, 

■ The approximate net safe buoyancy of the boat in the bridge la 
the displacement of the ponton with a safe freeboard (approx. in.) 
minus the weight of one span of flooring. The weights of one span 
of flooring of the 23 -ton bridge, M1024, and the 10-ton bridge, 
M1038, are approximately 4,100 and 2,600 pounds, respectively. 

'A duralumin trestle has also been made weighing 1,200 pounds. 
-With outboard motor, ferrying capacity Is 40 passengers with 
crew of 3. 



107 



49 corps of 



Table XIi. — Maximum safe. Toads for various types of ponton bridges 



Type of bridge 


Maxi- 
mum 
cross 
load 
(pounds) 


Maxi- 
mum 
Rule 
load 
(pounds) 


Mini- 
mum 

1 LJ.^L .'11 ■ 

between 
■vehicles 
(feet) 


Maii- 

speed 
(m. p. h.) 


Width of 
road- 
way 

(clear) 
(feet) 


7 W-ton, MM28, normal l 


i$,iioo 


12,000 


S2 


s 


10 


7«-ton, M1B2C, reinforced 


30, «» 


34,000 


32 


6 


10 


10-ton, M1938, normal : 


20,000 


J6.0UO 


35 


5 


10 


10-ton, M193S, reinforced* 


40, 000 


S2.000 


36 


6 


10 


23-ton, MI924, normal 1 


40,000 


33,000 


32 


o 


liM 



























1 Normal span of 16 foot between boat centers, si^ven 4- by 0-inch balk and 2 siderails 
In eaeh ponton bay and each trestle and hinge span, and 1 layer of 2J4-tnch chess. 
• One extra boat In each boat span. Seven balk and 2 siderails in boat sjmns and 

13 balk and 2 siderails in abutment, trestle , and binge spans. {This is tho 1 5- ton 
kridge.) 

» Normal span of IHH feet between boot centers, eight 4- by 6-inch balk and 2 side- 
rails in each ponton bay and in each trestle and hinge span, and 1 layer of 2H inch 
■chess. 

< Ono extra boat in each boat span. Eight balk and 2 side rails in boat spans and 

14 balk and 2 siderails in abutment, trestle, and hinge spans. (This is tho 20- ton 
bridge.) 

1 Normal span of 10 feet Iwtween boat centers, ninEs 5Mo* by 7^-inoh talk and 2 
sideraih in eaeh hay, 1 layer of 2^-ineh chess, and 1 transverse balk in tho center of 
each span. 

« This bridge, now under design, will replace the 23-ton bridge, -M1024. 



REFERENCE DATA 



* 50. Trestle Bridges. 




282736 8 



109 



50 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




ELEVATION OF BENT LONGITUDINAL ELEVATION OF BRIDGE 

* 

Figure 58, — Multiple short span (nonfloatlng) bridge for corps and 
army loads (H-15 loading) . Steel stringers in spans 
up to 25 feet. 



Table XII.— Material used in standard, trestle bridge 



Material 


Sfee 


Flooring 


2 layers of 3- by 13-ineh by ] Moot planks. 
A by 6 inches. 

8, 6 by 12 inches (not to exceed 16 feet In length). 
4, 6 by 8 inches (not to exceed 16 foot In length). 
6 by 8 inches by 12 feet. 
2 by ID inches. 


Curbs _ 


Stringers 

Posts - 

Cap and sill 

Bracing. 






110 





Te3*T a MtUM 



HEFEKENCE DATA 



50 



Note. — Bents over 16 feet high are double story. Round posts 
must be 9 inches in diameter. Logs for caps and sills must be 10 
inches in diameter before shaping. The second layer of flooring 
may be temporarily omitted. If the span exceeds 15 feet, use 6 
standard steel beam stringers as follows: 



Clear 

spans 
(feet) 


Class of 
beam 
in dei 


Weil! tit 
(pounds 
per foot) 


Nominal 

dimensions 
(inches) 


Actual 
leoi;Ui 
(feet) 


Material strength 


15-17K-._ 


CB101 


21 


10 XBH 


19 


Standard commercial. 


17^-20.... 


CB101 


21 


10i5fi 


2\)4 


Do. 


20-22}*—. 


CB121 


25 


12i6H 


24 


Do. 


22Jfr-2S..__ 


CB 121 


as 


12 1 AM 


28W 


Do. 




IBESH.E BENT 



Figvre 60,— Methods of fastening standard bridge deck material. 

Ill 



51 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

■ 51. Steel Trusses. — a, Portable H-10 type. 



Table XLIL— ; Permissible loadings of portable H~10 truss bridge for 
various lengths of span 



Number of 
Kirdcrs 


36 feet 


48 feet 


60 feet 


72 feet 


84 feet 


90 feet 


108 feet 


2 


H-20 


H-15 




H-10 

e-15 

H-20 










11-20 




H-10 




4 






H-lfi 


H-10 













Note, — The 12-foot box girder section weighs 1140 pounds. The 
73 -foot (2- girder) span can be carried on nine 1 % -ton trucks or Ave 
2^-ton trucks. Onder ideal conditions an experienced crew of 42 
men under an officer can construct a (2-glrder) 60-foot span in 
about 1 hour. 




FtGTJHE 61.— Method of launching and Installing on abutments. 



112 



REFERENCE DATA 



51-52 



b. Portable H-20 type. — The long span (nonfioating) bridge 
for corps and army loads (H-20 loading) built with two girders 
will carry all army loads on spans up to 125 feet. The box 
girder section, 2 by 6 by tS% feet, weighs 1,130 pounds. The 
material for the 125-foot span weighs about 43 tons and can 
be carried in twenty-four lVa-ton trucks. 

■ 52. Spar Bridges; Trestle Bents. 




Figure 62.— Single- and double-lock spar bridges. 



113 




■ 53. Passage 



REFERENCE DATA 

by Poms and on Ice. 

Table XLm. — Fardable depths 



53-54 



Type of unit 



Depth of 
water 
(feet) 



Infantry. .. 

Horse cavalry 

Artillery (horse-drawn) and wagons 

Trucks 

Light tanks 

Medium tanks 

Heavy tanks. 



M 
3 

1- 3 

2- 4 
4-6 



Note,— These depths require a moderate current and a hard bot- 
tom. 

Table XLIV.— Carrying capacity of ice 1 



Thickness (inches) 


"Will support- 




Small groups of men. 
Horse cavalry in small groups. 
Wagons and 75-mni guns. 
Divisional loads, 
Axmy loads. 


1-6- 


7 




20 





i New sound lee in floating contact with water. 

■ 54. Passage by Boats, Rafts, and Perries. — The assault 
boat weighs 200 pounds. Ten boats are the normal load of a 
iy 2 -ton truck. Besides its engineer crew of two a boat will 
carry — 

9 men. 

8 men and a machine gun or 60-mm mortar with 
some ammunition, 

7 men and one heavier item of infantry battalion 
equipment (81-rr.m mortar or communication sec- 
tion). 



115 



54 



CORPS OF 




FrGTJBE 64. — Rafts made from ponton equipage. 



A two-boat light ponton raft with two simple landing stages 
(see fig. 66) can be constructed in about 1 hour by 48 men 
after equipment is delivered. This ferry has a 10-foot by 
21-foot platform that carries one gross truck load of 5 tons 
or a uniform load of 7 tons, making 6 or more round trips 
per hour. On narrow streams the ferry may be drawn across 
by cables fixed to both banks or by cables attached to the raft 
pulled from shore. When outboard motors are used on free 
rafts, several may operate at one site. See further details 
on rafts in TM 5-270. 



116 




Figuhe 65— Trail ferry with landing stage. 




Figure 6G.— Flying ferry. 



117 



55-56 



CORPS OP ENGINEERS 



Section HE 
RAILWAYS 

■ 55. Reconnaissance. — Information to be secured: 

a. Number, location, and gage of lines. 

b. Condition of roadbed, ties, and rails. 

c. Number, types, condition, and nature of rolling stock and 
other equipment. 

d. Number, length, and location of passing tracks and 
sidings. 

e. If line is passable throughout, and, if not, at what points 
and for what reasons stoppages of traffic may occur. 

/. Ruling grade and maximum curvature. 

g. Location and amounts of fuel, water, ballast, and mainte- 
nance material. 

h. Facilities for repair and servicing. 

i. Locations favorable to construction of detours. 

j. Condition of right-of-way for marching troops along the 
line. 

fc. Drainage and liability to overflow or wash-out. 
I. Number, location, dimensions, and strength of tunnels 
and bridges. 

m. Location and capacity of platforms, ramps, loading and 
storage facilities. 
7i. Signal communications. 

■ 56. Useful Data. — a. Capacity of railways. — A single- 
track railway line in good condition with ruling grade of 1 
percent and passing tracks at 6 to 10 mile intervals can pass 
10 trains per 24 hours in each direction, the length of the 
train being fixed by the clear length of sidings and the maxi- 
mum tonnage hauled per train not exceeding 1,500 tons. 
Excess grade (over 2 percent) reduces tonnage hauled per 
train rather than number of trains passed. Capacity of 
double-track lines is usually limited by capacity of facilities 
for dispatching and receiving trains. Rule of thumb for 
determining the capacity of a terminal: Cars handled per 24 
hours equal two-thirds of total length of track in receiving 
or classification yard divided by average length of car. 



118 



reference data 



56 




v TOP OF i RAIL 
-Ml'*' — . I RASE OF RAIL' 

FOR BRIDGES 




© FOR TUNNEL, SINGLE TfiACK 




■MINI OF TRACKS 
TO COHFORH TO 
RAILWAY STANDARDS. 




"DRAIN PIPE OF CAST IRON OPENING 
® FOR TUNNEL, DOUBLE TRACK 

Figure 67.— Standard clearance diagrams for bridges and tunnels 



119 



56 



CGSFS OF ENGINEERS 



b. Gage. — Standard gage is 4 feet 8 V 2 inches measured at 
point % inch below top of rail. Overgage on curves: ^ 
inch per degree over 8 s (maximum, 4 feet 9Vi inches). 

e. Roadbed. — Width at top of single-track embankment: 
15 feet; width at bottom of single-track cut: 14 feet (plus 
ditches) ; width at top of double -track embankment: 27 feet; 
width at bottom of double- track cut: 26 feet (plus ditches). 
Minimum spacing of adjacent parallel tracks: 13 feet (spac- 
ing Increased on curves) . 

d. Ties. — Ties are 8 to 9 feet long, by 6 to 7 inches thick, 
by 8 to 10 inches wide. The normal spacing is 20 inches, 
center to center. 

e. Clearance. — The clearance shown in figure 67 should tie 
departed from only under exceptional circumstances. 

/. Rails. — For military use, 85 -pound rails are satisfactory. 
Bail lengths vary between 30 and 39 feet (normal, 33 feet) . 
g. Curves,—, Formula for simple railway curve: 



Radius 



Vz unit chord 



R= 



sin V 3 (degree of curve) or 
Vz C 



sin y 2 D 



For unit chord of 100 feet, ii=5730/D, with R in feet, D in 
degrees. (See TM 5-235 and TM 5-236 for more complete 
data on surveys and location.) 



(length in inches 
-j equals curvature of 
(track in degrees 




68. — Method of determining approximate degree of curvature. 



120 



REFERENCE DATA 



56 



ft. Ballast.— Ballast is used only when absolutely required 
for support or drainage. 



Tabu XLV.— Quantity of ballast per mile of standard gage one-track 



lnchi*3 of 
ballast uarier 
tie 


Cubic yards ol 
ballast par mile 


4 


1.529 


fi 


1,779 


6 


2,032 


7 


2,295 


8 


2.S77 


9 


2.863 


10 


3, 137 



Note. — Ties 6 by 8 Inches by 8 feet, spaced 20 inches center to 
center: ballast dressed even with the tops of the ties and sloping 
from the ends of ties 1 on 4. 



121 



i. Characteristics of rolling stock. 

Table XLVI. — Dimensions and capacities of cars 



s 



Type of car 



jy, Military: 

Flat and gondola.... 
Tank, 5^HXH;alkin.. 

Caboose 

Typical commercial: i 
Boi 



Capacity 



Tons 



Flat- 



Stock. 



Men (8 
square 
feet per 

man 

and 
equip- 
ment) 



Ani- 
mals 
(light 
draft 
at 22 
inches! 



Cubic 
feet 



a, 750 
3,100 
3,100 



2, 625 
2,825 
1,570 
1,920 



■Weight 
empty 
in tons 



^Dimensions In feet 



Height 
from 
rails to 
top of 
floor 



3.8 
3.8 
3.8 

3.8 

3.5 
3.0 
3.7 
3.7 
3.7 
3.7 
3.7 
3.7 
3.7 
3.7 



Outside 



Length 
(center 
of cou- 
plings) 



28 

23 
28 
28 

39.8 
44.3 
443 
42.0 
47.0 
52.0 
39.5 
39.5 
44.5 
52.5 



Width 



9.8 
9.0 
9.0 

e.s 

10.3 
10.3 
10.3 
10. 
10.0 
JO.O 
9.5 
9.5 
10. 
10, 3 



Height 



14.1 
7,1 
13.0 
14.3 

14.5 

14.5 
14.5 
7.3 
7,3 
8.7 
14.0 
14.0 
8.0 
7.3 



Inside 



length 



24.2 
24.1 
22. t 
20.6 

30 

40.5 

40.5 

40.0 

45 

50 

36 

36 

40 

43 



Width 



dia.fi. 4 
8 

8.5 
8.5 
8.5 

I 

9 
9 

8.5 
8.5 
9.9 
10.0 



Height 



8 



8,8 
3.3 



7.0 

9 
9 
9 



S.5 

as 
i 

4 







Automobile 

Tank; 

8,000-g&llon__ 
10,000-gallon. 



Baggage-— 

Caboose 

Diner 



£0 



g 



fileeper, 12 sections and drawing 
room — 

!T,1S 



45 
53 


22 
27 


3, 100 

3,850 








o 
(?) 




2,570 
2,570 
















Passenger capacity 




70 



40 



20 
25 

20 
24 
28 
30 
45 
20 
SO 



60 



3.6 

3.8 

3.7 

3.7 
3.7 
3.7 

3.7 
3.7 

3,7 



3.7 



3.7 
3.7 



44.3 
54.3 

38.3 
38.3 
41,6 
43.5 
70.0 
38. 
83.0 



72.0 



82 5 
82.5 



10 3 
10.3 

9.3 

9.3 
10.0 
10.0 
10.0 
10.0 
10.0 



10.0 



10.0 
10.0 



14.6 
14.5 

13.2 
14,0 
13.5 
13.5 
14.0 
14.0 
14.0 



14.0 



14.0 
14.0 



40.6 

50.5 

33 

33 

40.5 

40.6 

60 

27.5 

78.5 



63.0 



74.0 
74.0 



8.6 
8.5 

dla. 6. 6 
dia. 7, 2 
8.2 
8.2 
9.1 
8.2 
8.5 



0.1 



S. 1 
9.1 



7.2 
7.5 
8 
7 

8.5 



, There a, no standard dimens.ns cf commer^ «^Ce=S^=^VT^ " 



comes in 32 lengths varying from 35 feet 7 inches to 41 
i Ice capacity, 4 tons. 
• Ice capacity, 5 tons. 



56 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




CONSOLIDATION 2-8-0 STEAM LOCOMOTIVE 




GASOLINE -MECHANICAL LOCOMOTIVE 

Figure 69 .-^Standard locomotives. 
Tabuc XL VII.— Characteristics of standard locomotives 



"5. Lotl fleam 



30-ton gasoline- 
mechanical 



Normal load 

Normal pay load - 

length of siding 

Fuel consumption per hour... 

Fuel capacity 

Water consumption per hour 
Tender capacity, water 



1,000. ton train..- - 

500 tens 

1,400 feet 

4,400 pounds coal. 

10 tons coal . . 

3,400 gallons 

7,000 gallons 



(00-ton train. 
250 tons. 
700 feet. 
35 gallons. 
150 gallons. 



124 



REFERENCE DATA 66-57 

J. Man-hour data. 



Table XLVIII.— Rates of miscellaneous taste in railway construction. 



Task 


Man-hours required ' 
for— 


Each 100 
linear 
yards 


Each Job 


Laying ties .... — 


lfi 
32 
16 
256 




Lining track 








Inserting frog 

Constructing turn-out: 

In old line,. 


>3 

1 192 
'90 











i Material on job. Special equipment available. Grading previously completed. 
1 Assumes use of 12 experienced men. 



Section IV 
CONSTRUCTION IN WAR 

■ 57. Reconnaissance Data. — a. Requirements for all types 
of construction sites. — (1) Sufficient size for present needs 
and future possible expansion, with adequate room for disper- 
sion, 

(2) Adequate water supply. 

(3) On or near railroad of sufficient capacity for supply 
and personnel movement. 

(4) Available for lease (if not already owned or leased by 
the Government) for period up to 5 years. 

(5) Largely free from floods. 

(6) Adequate drainage with porous soils. 

(7) Roads good or potentially good. 

(8) Climate favorable for training contemplated. 

(9) No insect pests. 

(10) Location strategically convenient. 

(11) Material and labor locally available at reasonable 
prices. 



282736°-41 9 



125 



57-58 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



t>. Additional requirements far semipermanent camp 
sites.— Accessible to adequate training area. 

(2) Accessible to suitable target range area. 

(3) Recreational facilities nearby. 

(4) Grazing facilities for animals (applies also to re- 
mount depot sites) . 



Table XUX.— Space requirements far preliminary estimates 



Per- 


Bpevce (senate yards) 


Samipor- 
matient 
camps 


Bivouacs 




50 
50 
100 


50 
50 
100 









Note — Tills includes room for roads, assembly areas, and other 
space requirements except lor training and storage. One acre 
equals 4,640 square yards Dispersion and concealment are desirable 
for bivouacs. 



■ 58. Semipermanent Camps.— a. Requirements*— CI) Neces- 
sary facilities: baTracks, messes, latrines, baths, lavatories, 
administration buildings, hospital, guardhouse, storehouses, 
post exchange, officers' mess, officers' quarters, recreation 
building. Tents can be used where erection of buildings is 
impracticable, 

(2) Also necessary for horse units: stables, corrals, water- 
ing troughs. 

(3) Also necessary for motor units : shops. 

(4) Locate kitchens, hospitals, warehouses, stables, motor 
parks, and offices near roads. 

(5) Locate latrine^ stables, and incinerators away from 
kitchens and mess halls to minimize fly and odor nuisance. 

(6) Provide compact lay-out but allow for future expan- 

Sl °(7') Use standard building, 20 by 100 feet, for all possible 
construction in semipermanent camps. 



126 



REFERENCE DATA 



58 



o o o o o o 
RflflPiflR 



111 111 1.1 




r: >. 

g f> c a , 

**** ^fi , 

rt M ffv I 



4j o o a o :'- e o 

i 13 U Tj Tj g «t? 

£, f I 1 I Ph .1 



127 



a 
1 



1 



s 



c S5§ 
| SI S 

g is g s 

.19 9 

OJ Tj 01 

^ & ^ & 
. | 1 I i 

Pfclftf.' 

►4 A i 



ii 
■ a 

I V £ 



4> m 



^ * « <M *3 15 

fcJS t*-^ « rfl s#» cvi 



K : 


Q 


3 


Piece - 
Found 


o 


3g 




§ « N 



— 



Table L, — Bill of materials, standard building 20 by 100 feet — Con. 
Far corrugated steel covered building (add to bill No. 1) 



Btu, No. 3. 



Item 


Quan- 
tity 


Unit 


Size 


Length 


Feet, 
board 
measure 


Weight 
(pounds) 


Description 


1- 


1<W 

239 

22 
11 

n 

18 
2 
400 
2 


Piece- 




8 feet 

4 inches 

8 feet 




2.225 
26 
3.613 

22 

11 

330 
IS 

2 
200 

2 


Lumber. 
Nails. 

2^-incb corrugated steel sheets, black, 28 
gage. 

Nails, barbed, roofing, 10 gage. 
Kivets. 

Building, paper. 
Wire, galvanized. 
Staples, poultry netting. 
Laths. 

Nails 15 gage. 


2. — ,. 

3- 

4... 


Found . . 
Piece 

Pound 

do 


20d 

27>e inches.. 


5 


91s inch 


% inch 




6. 

7 ..... 


Bol! 

Pound... 
do...._ 


3fi inches 

No. 16 


160fcct8inebes.._ 




8 


No. 14 - 


34 inch 




0- 




H by l\i inches... 
3d 


4 feet - 




10... . 


Found 












Note.— Materials included in items Nos. 6, 7, 3, 9, sad 10 will be used il insulation is required. 
BtiiNo. 4. For 24 sash 


1 

2._ 


48 

1 

3 


Piece 

RolL 


£6 by 3 inches.-— . 


12 feet 

100 feet 


144 


600 
50 

m 


Lumber. 

Transparent plastic sheet. 
Nails. 


3 


Found 


4d 















Bill No. 5. 



For 2 pairs of doors, type 1 



fej Bill No. G. 



1 


4 


Piece 


ti by 8 inches 


8 feet 




92 


2 


23 


Piece...... 


54 by 6 Inches 


8 feet... _._ 


22 
92 


3 


2 


Piece. 


7 Aby3 inches 

% inch.... 


8 feet __ 

3feet.__ 


383 
17 

H 

20 


4 _ 


1 


Piece _ 


4 


8 .... 


8 


Each 




10 inches. 




6 


I H 


Pound 


6-d.._ 


2 inches 










7.. 


H 


Found.. ... 


4-d 


1 Winches 




8 




Piece ..... 


H inch 


12 feet 




H 

i 


9 _ 


2 


Each 


M Inch.... 








10 


4 


F.ach. 








i 














i 



Lumber, 

Do, 

Do. 
Wood dowel. 

T-hlnges and necessary screws. 
Hails. 

Do. 
Rope, manila. 

Screw eyes, wire, #106 Sargent or equal. 
Screw hooks and eyes. 



l..__ 


100 


Piece 


2 


300 


Piece 


3 _ 


136 


Piece 


4 


26 


Piece 


8.- 


100 


Piece. 


6 


84 
28 


Piece. 


7.. 


Pound 


8... 


20 


Pound 




4 


Found..... 



For 50 two-man bunks 



2 by 4 inches.. 
7 /i by 6 inches. 
!Sby6inehes. 
2 by 2 inches.. 

by 3 inches. 
ty by 3 Inches. 

8-d 

6-d.__ _, 

3-d 



12 feet 

14 feet. 

8 feet 

8 feet.. 

14 feet 

8 feet 

2W Inches 

2 inches 

VA inches 



800 
2,100 
642 
70 
350 
168 



3,334 
8,750 
2,266 
292 
1, 453 
TOO 
23 
20 
4 



Lumber, 
Do, 
Do. 
Do. 
Do, 
Do. 

Nails. 
Do. 
Do. 



Table L. — Bill of ■materials, stunaard building 20 by 100 /eet-Con, 



Bill No, T. Electrical 



Item 


Quan- 
tity 


Unit 


Siz« 


Length 


Feet, 
board 
measure 


Weight 
(poundU) 


Inscription 


1- 


a'o 

. i 

2 
i 

50 

2 
4 
10 

4 


Feet... 








m 
i 


Wire. R. C. S. B., solid copper. 
Cutout, main line, plug fuse, double pole. 

Fuses, plug. 

Socket, pull, brass, S23 (P. and S. cat. 38, 

base B. P.). 
Knobs, split porcelain, with nail and 

leather washer. 
Tubes, porcelain. 
Lamps, Mazda, 11 5- volt- 
Screws, for cut-out and socket, No. 8, 

F. H. bright. 
Cord, liner., with chain and link tassel. 


2 

3._ 


Each 

..-do... 

___do 


30 r 125 
volts. 


















1M 


5.- 


...do 








6 


...do 








s; 


_..do 


25 watts_ 








1W inches 










...do 




3 feet 



















Number of pieces of wood sheathing must be adjusted when specified width is not available. 

Allowance included for cutting waste only. To cover other losses add: For lumber, 3 percent (minimum, 1 piece each size); for nails, 
rivets, and screws, 10 percent. 



ifly Roofing Felt 
32? Wide, Lopped 3". 

Sbeaft.itiQ 

$*r4'Fovo S'r/pt 
3" Overhung 
I From Frame! 



WOOD ft FELT , piy Roof in g Fell 
COVERED n'WiHt, Lopped t' 
Worn! Slealhing 
Felt. 



f?*rti' Wood 
Laths Our fill. 

erode Lire I 




sr Hfie-o'Sheett, 
dent Our Ridge. 

-irHr~i*'-o' Sheer*. 
-iiT Chertong. 
•T ft'* f-e" Sheets. 



11 - -t? ft't e'.o' $ fieett . 



Hett 

All Sheets of 18 Gag* 
Corrugated Stsel, Black, yt BS9 - q , 
yyi Lopr except where Covered- 
noted. 

Grade Level. 




FRONT ELEVATION 

SHOWING ALTEPNATE COVERINGS AND Ffl 



SECTION A-A 

SHOWING ALTERNATE COVERINGS ft FRAME 



j.QtZ.-£tL 




53 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




Bill 




r l 


CT ■' 






■ 


y ■ 






f '« r ^^para . 




;■>'. 




I 


n**.- 6 on rdV -.1 •£> A JE i ' 


jT £_ 






























J 

4 










J <t-< 


; : 






f . J I , ' . ' 1 '0 ~ j 


rfli 


.. li 





























LABOR: 24 MAM HRS. 




1 

WALL TENT f BJ.ME (sKftLL) 



an l 




S./t 


: .in 




I ir 


e_ 


















3 ■-^r_Hgnfri> Sia ftiC 1 ' L Ll mpt r. 






""iff 




Mlh K Tl t flQor 


; il 
t 








\'< - i,r -j, 












i 








9"H C-J — 








-i 




tt'Z 











WW7* 
















. 





LABOR: 10 MAN HRS. 

Figure 72,— Pyramidal and small wall tent frames. 
122 



REFERENCE DATA 




58 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 





SECTIONAL PLAN 



END ELEVATION 

entrances to be screened with burlap or brush screen 5, when necessary. 



NOTE- Omit "Pre pored Roofmo." if Cover Strips are used 



BILL FOR LATRINE SHELTER-WOOD ROOF 



Nofts 


Size 


4S£ 


FtBM 


ii 


2~ A 


P! 


■ :~ 


e 


;* 4" 


|0 .-°„ 


40 


8 


2" 4' 


12-0 


64 


20 


Jfl'fc" 


16-6" 


160 


49 


«>4T 


10'- 0" 


J 45 


6 


!2'-0" 


24 


40 


7a '3" 


10-0' 


I0O 


jSjll: 








6 lbs 


20 d. 


4" 




Site 


10 d. 






12 lbs 


6 d. 







Items 



S turta u.&LEnd Girls at Fool Blocks 
Roof Rafters 

Plotesat Lower Girts on Sides 
Sheathing on Sides 
Shea t hint) on Roof &tnds 
Purlins 

Strips for covering Roof iolnts if used, 
2 Ply 'Pre pa red Roofing. [Joiis.Cups.Cem. 
Noils for Frarrtlnq. 
Mails for Frgminq. 
Nails for Sheathiriq 





Bl 


LL FOR 12 HOLE LATRINE BOX 


tJofts 


SiZS 


i.enqth 


Ftttt 


Items. 


4 
& 
4 

10 

3 

1 lb. 

s lbs, 

< RaJI 
24 


*B' 

SOd. 
lOd, 
fid. 
OfU. 
2'W 


"l£-O n 
B-o", 

1 z-o* 
100" 
8-o' 

4' 


32 
32 
24 
33 
6 


frame 

Cover, Top only 

Lids and Two End Boards. 

End Boards, Sides 8c Filters. 

Lid Battens end Stop Blocks. 

Noils for framing. 

Nails for Framing. 

Noils for sneathi™. 

Tar Paper for Fl /-proof in q^ify&ps.etc. 

H ino.es.Fost Joint ^necessary screws. 



r 



BILL FOR TWO URINAL TROUGHS 

It cms. 



I 


I**" 


to 


4 


I 




6-0 


4 


3 




io'-o' 


15 






6'-0 


2 


i Roll 




40* 




'4 lb. 


ioO. 


S* 




i lb 


Sd. 


2^" 




2 


2* 






2 


2" 


2-6" 






r 


4-0- 





Brocket Support 
End Boards 

Trough and Splash Boards 
Bracket 

Tor Paper. Heavy. In&l Na il; .Cement ICop J 

Noils 

Noils 

Elbows for Conductor Pipe.Gohn 
Conductor Pipe, Gal v. 
conductor Pipe.Galv 



BILL FOR METAL ROOF ON SHELTER IF USED 






Items. 






27jw 
"10 


1 - 0" 
1)4" 




Corrugated Steel 5heets,No 2SGa, 



Labor on Shelter(woodroofjihxl.2 Urinal Troughs = 24 Man Hm. 



Umr= 22 man Hours 



Labor » 3 man Hours 
76.— Latrine. 



BILL FOR TEMPORARY LATRINE SHELTER 



Mo to 



Sizelienqth 



14 2»4 10.-0 
I I 4-o I 30-O- 



FtBM 



It tMS 



Carwas for Screen! nq 1 or Burlap 
Labor • 5 Man Hours 

u CWpmHI miti* orrice: mi — 0-ill»lt 




PLAN OFMESS HALL 

CAJttCiTY 24CMEN 

fi- 20- wo' Buildings joined together} 

V. J.S«*ER«KEHT PRJNTINC OFFICE I \tli 0-111731 




REFER ENCE DATA 



58-59 




-1*—"" 




~~—H'- . . 




1 












\ 



Y -*** i 

Picuee 77.— Open- side d storage shed. 



■ 59. Hospitals. — a. Provide hospitalization at station hospi- 
tals for 5 percent of troops in the area. Provide hospitali- 
zation at general hospitals for approximately 10 percent 
additional of troops in theater of operations. 

&. Place latrines, feces destructor, and morgue well away 
from other buildings, where odor and fly nuisances are mini- 
mized. 

c. Provide road access to wards, operation rooms, clinics, 
storehouses, kitchens, and administration buildings, 

d. Use tents where building construction is not feasible. 

e. In estimates, allow for floors in wards, operating rooms, 
clinics, kitchens, dining rooms, and administration buildings. 



136 



58-60 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

, ■ soo' 



BATH & ABLUTION pj 



I J 



=3 □ 




Figobe 78.— Typical lay-out for 250-bed station hospital. 

■ 60. Depot Lay-out, — a. Lay out warehouse area in sec- 
tions with ladder track on each side connected by house 
tracks about 1,700 feet long. 
6. Space house tracks 150 feet apart. 

c. Place warehouses on one side of each house track. Pro- 
vide open storage on opposite side. 

d. Provide fire breaks 50 feet wide between open and cov- 
ered storage areas. 

e. Store as many articles as possible in the open. 



^Union IGalv.Pipe. 

Notc: All partitions full height. Flooring thruout eoiLDiNS-.^SLjoNa Sash 3-3"* 3-3" 




283736°— 41 (Face p. 136) 



61 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

■ 61. Advanced Airdromes. — a. Facilities necessary. — Land- 
ing field, airplane parking areas, personnel shelters, limited 
repair shelters, ammunition dump, truck park, gasoline 
storage area. 

b. Requirements. — (1) Provide landing strips of hard, 
well-drained ground. Provide at least two strips, 3,000 feet 
by 500 feet, one parallel to prevailing wind and one to storm 
wind. Add 250 feet in length for each 1,000 feet elevation 
above sea level. Make grades less than 2V a percent, with 
no changes over one-half percent in any 100-foot inter- 
val. Cut grass to 15-inch height or Jess. Provide boundary 
lighting. 

(2) Park planes under natural cover. 

(3) Shelter personnel in existing buildings or in tents. 

(4) Provide operations office and machine shop in con- 
cealed small buildings. 




Fictjee 81.— Typical advanced airdrome. 
138 



REFERENCE DATA 



61-62 



(5) Locate ammunition, gasoline, and truck storage areas 
with view to localizing damage from explosion, 

(6) Make maximum use of camouflage and concealment. 

■ 62, Useful Data. 



Table IX- — Personnel for erection of standard building 20 oy 100 

feet 



Operation 



Number of 
ine a 



Piers and sills,. ..... 

Assembly of Bids frames 

Erection of side frames 

Assembly of end frames. 

Placing rafters and knee braces 

Applying sheath lng..__. 

Applying roof boards 

Applying eom posit ion roofing paper.. 
Hanging doors and windows. 



(') 
P! 



24 
36 



38 
86 
38 

ss 
24 



■ Ail available. 
*9 at each end. 



Tafle LI!.— Unit requirements for theater of operations facilities 



Facility 


Sha of typical 
unit 


Number of men per 
typical unit 


Basic ratio 


Hospital 


EOfeetby lOOfeet. 

20 feet by 92 feet. 
20 feet by 164 feet. 
20 feet bySfeet. 

(12 seats). 
20 feet by 24 foot. 

20 feet by 12 feet. 


50 (single bunks) 

100 (double tier 
bunks) (in 
emergency). 
25... 


40 square feet per man. 
20 square feet per man. 

00 square feet per man. 

1 scat per 20-40 men. 

1 bathhouse per battalion 
area. 

1 lavatory per company. 


(all facilities). 


60. 

240-480. 


Bathhouse 

Lavatory 


M0 

100-200 



139 



€2-63 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Table lux. — Approximate man-hours for construction under average 
conditions 



Tspeof con si ruction 



Man-hours 



Standard barracks (no floor), 20 by 100 feet _ 

Typo A floor. 

Typo B floor 

92-fbct hospital ward: 

Typo A floor 

Typo D floor. 

lS4-toot bos pi I a] ward: 

TypeAfloor. - 

Type B floor _ 

Moss ball, 20 by 100 feet (no floor) T 

Latrine, 12-scat- 

Bathhouse: 

Concrete floor 

Wood and corrugated iron floors - 

Open-sided storage shed (21C feet long) 

50 bunks (2-uian) 

Camp, 1,000-man unit, buildings only (all floors type A) 

Station hospital, buildings only (250-bed) (all floors type A).. 

General hospital, buildings only (all floors typo A) 

Camp, triangular infantry division 



Section V 
WATER SUPPLY 

■ 63. General. — a. Methods of supply. — In the theater of 
operations water is procured locally by using organizations 
wherever practicable. However, when local supplies are lim- 
ited or unsatisfactory, engineer personnel install and operate 
the necessary water supply facilities. 

b. Responsibility. — Under the latter conditions engineers 
are responsible for the quality and quantity of water supplied 
and for delivery to the point where it is distributed to using 
organizations. Medical personnel assist as may be necessary 
for laboratory examinations and sanitary inspections. Han- 
dling of water in organization water containers and sterilizing 
bags, and in the canteen of the individual soldier, is the re- 
sponsibility of organization commanders, acting with the 
advice and assistance of attached medical personnel. 



U0 



REFERENCE DATA 



63-64 



c. General water supply duties of engineers. 
(1) Reconnaissance and collection of data. 
<2) Development of sources. 

(3) Purification. 

(4) Construction and operation of establishments. 

(5) Transportation to distributing points. 

d. Water supply activities of unit engineers. — In addition to 
the general engineer water supply duties, unit engineers are 
responsible for the following specific activities within their 
areas: 

(1) Recommendations as to methods of supply, quantity of 
water to be supplied, and conservation of water. 

(2) Collection and transmission to higher echelons of data 
pertaining to water. 

(3) Enforcement of water discipline at water supply points. 
(4> Regulation of traffic at water supply points. 

(5) Posting of signs to indicate safe and unsafe water. 

(6) Preparation of maps and sketches to show locations of 
wafer supply points. 

(7) Maintenance of records of water supply establishments 
in the area. 

(8) Arrangements with higher engineer echelons for the 
delivery of water by truck, railway, or pipe line when local 
supplies are inadequate. 

e. Basic considerations. — (1) Camouflage, defense against 
air and chemical attack, and wide dispersion of water supply 
points are provided insofar as possible. 

(2) Water supply work in forward areas is taken over by 
engineers of rear echelons whenever time and existing condi- 
tions permit. 

(3) General engineer troops normally execute all engineer 
water supply tasks, except those involving the transportation 
of water by truck or railway and the operation of purification 
trucks. 

■ 64. Water Supply Points. — a. Factors to be considered in 
selecting water distributing points. — (1) Proximity to kitchens 
and troops to be supplied. 

(2) Accessibility to water source. 

(3) Safety from enemy light artillery. 



282736°— II 10 141 



64 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



(4> Concealment from enemy air and ground observation, 

(5) Parking space for waiting vehicles. 

(6) Situation with regard to general scheme for traffic 
control, 

(7) Existence of a natural elevation suitable for installation 
of storage tanks. 

(8) Hardness of ground and natural drainage. 

(9) Type of containers to be filled. 

h, Lay-out of water distributing points. 




Pictjhe 82.— Typical water distributing point. 



Table LTV. —Man-hours for installing a water distributing point 



Task 


M:m- 
hours 
required 


Size of 


Remarks 


Erect timber trestlo platform 


1(1 


1 or 2 


Materials at the site- using 


for 3,U00.gallon canvas tank. 






power tools. 


Erect. 3,000-callon tank 


2 


1 


After pi atform ia constructed . 


Set up pump and hose 


1 


n 




Install 260-gsllou animal water- 


1 


a 




ing tank and hand pump. 









142 



REFERENCE DATA 64 

c. Organisation of water distributing points. 



Table LV. — Type organization for operating a water distributing 

point 





Size of party 


Remarks 


Filling milk cans 




2 shifts of Vi squad each. 
2 shifts of 1 man each, 
ashills. 
Do, 


Operating power pump 

Traffic police „ 


2 men 

As required... 

do - 







Notes. — I. Organizations are supplied with 10-gallon milk cans 
lor carrying water. A iy 2 -ton truck will carry 30 such cans. At 
the distributing point the cans may either be filled, on the truck 
with multiple hoses or replaced Irom a reserve ol filled cans. 

2, Animals ordinarily are watered from, water basins rather than 
directly from a stream. A group of 10 can drink from the standard, 
circular, 260-gallon basin In about 5 minutes. Hose liable to damage 
should be elevated or buried. Drainage ditches and spread gravel 
will remedy muddy conditions. 



143 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



■ 65. Water Tank Platform. 




BPLL Of MATERIAL 



Wfr fMEdfS 


SIZE 


LENGTH 


FEU 


I 


*" H *" 


M' 


CAPS AND *U3 


9 


4" X 8" 


i' 


POSTS 


It 


ft 6" 


14" 


BRACE'S 


14 


St" X if 


1 V 




34 


fx (' 


IS" 


SCABS 




4D D 




NAIL* 



83 — Timber trestle platform for the 3,000-g3tton canvas 
storage tank. 



144 



reference data 66-67 

■ 66. Standard Pumps. 



Table LVI. — Standard, pump characteristics 



Type 


Capacity 
(gallons per 
minute) 


Size of 
connections 
(inches) 


Horse- 
power of 
motor 


Speed of 
pump 
(revolu- 
tions per 
minute) 


Standard portable, centrifugal 3 . - - . 


155 


• iji 


2H 


2.000 


Purification truck 1 ... - 


'100 




14 


2,000 





i The pump Issued with the portable purification unit is interchangeable with the 
standard, portable, centrifugal pump; tnesa data are applicable also to the portable 
purification unit when it fa operated as a simple pump. 

3 When operated as a simple pump. 

» Against a total head of 50 feet (including 15-foot suet ion lift). 

< Against a total head of 90 feet {including a 20-foot suction lilt). 

1 If bus hi uk is removed this pump may be used with 2-lnch connections. 

< Purification truck has a 3-foch pump. Actual intake connection, however, is 
reduced by bushing to 2M inches; discharge connection & reduced to 2 inches. 



B 67. Water Reconnaissance Report, 



Organization.. 

Place 

Date 



1. Location of -water source: Map ; map coordinates 

; local name 

2. Date and hour Inspected 

8. Well, spring, stream, lake, pond (ltne out terms not applicable) . 
4. Rate of flow gallons per day. 

6. Character of water: Clai-ity i taste ; 

odor 

6. Temperature of water T. 

7. Result ol tests (If tests impossible at time of Inspection, take 
sample of water as prescribed on back of sheet) (latest report of 
local Board of Health, If available) . 



E. Location of posstbia sources of pollution. 



, 1 

9. Possibility of chemical contamination (chemical warfare agents, 
poisoning, etc) 



10. Accessibility to railroad, highway, or trail. 



11. Well. 

a. Type (dug. driven, drilled, or bored) (for characteristics see 
table LIX FM 5-35). 

b. Diameter: top feet; bottom feet. 

e. Depth of well feet. 



145 



67 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

d. Depth of water feet. 

e. Distance from surface of ground to water surface, 
feet 

/. Type, condition, and depth of casing or lining 



" (T. Present method of recovering water- — — 

ft. Protection provided against entrance of surface water (coping, 
watertight basin, ditching, etc.) — 



a 2 Protection provided against entrance of surface: water (coping, 
watertight basin, ditching, etc.) 



"b" "Present method of delivering water -- 

o 3 ' Sketch 1 of ?roi' section (show width, maximum depth, and 
height of banks above water surface) (reference to photograph, If 

one is made ) , . 

b. Surface velocity feet per second. 

c. Nature oil bed 

d. Nature of banks 

14 Existing installations. 

a. Purification facilities (sedimentation tanks, chlorinating appa- 
ratus, filter, etc.) 

b. Pumps. 



Typo 


Bite 
(horse- 
power) 


Speed (rev- 
olutions tier 
minute) 


Intake con- 
nection 
(size and 
type) 


Discharge 
connection 
(slie and 
typo) 


Capacity 
(gallons 
per day) 



























c. Engines. 



Type 


Size (horse- 
power) 


Speed (revo- 
lutions [>er 
minute) 















d. Electrical equipment 



e. Storage facilities. 



Type 


Elevation 


Capacity 


(feet) 


(Rallonsj 















146 



REFERENCE DATA 67-68 



/. Pipe-line lay-out (draw sketch showing arrangement, kind, 
lengths, and Bizes of pipe, elevations, and heads of water). 
g. Condition of existing Installations 



16. Proposed development. 

a. Description 



b. Material available. 



c. Material required.. 



<L Man-hours "required 



(Signature) 

(Grade and organization) 

Note.— Back of sheet may be used for sketches or additional 
Information, 

The following Instructions should be printed on the reverse side 
of the form: 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR TAKING SAMPLES OP WATER 

If sample Is to be used for chemical examination only: 

1. Use a clean glass bottle, holding from 2 quarts to a gallon, 
with* a well-fitting stopper or a clean, unbroken cork. 

2. Rinse out the bottle two or three times with the water to be 
sampled. 

3. In sampling a well, support the bottle in a string or wire 
cradle, weighted at the bottom. Lower the bottle until the neck 
is 2 or 3 Inches below the surface. It is advantageous to attach 
the stopper to a separate string, so the bottle can bo opened below 
the surface of the water. In sampling a stream or pond, hold the 
bottle so the neck is well below the surface. Allow the bottle to fill. 

4. Insert stopper or cork, stretch a clean cloth over It, and tie 
down the cloth below the flange of the neck, 

5. Label the sample. 

If the sample Is to be used for bacteriological examination.: 

1. Use a sterilized bottle and stopper. Never use corks, 

2. Avoid touching the neck of the bottle or the stopper with the 
fingers. 

3. Before removing the stopper and after tilling, the neck of the 
bottle, and the tap or spout from which the sample is taken, should 
be heated in a clean flame (alcohol torch) to just over the boiling 
point of water (213° P.). 

Precautions: Never let the water entering the sample bottle flow 
over the hand. Before taking a sample from the spout of a pump 
or from a tap, allow water to waste for a time. 

■ 68, Estimating Quantity of Water at Sources. — a. WeHs. — 
Draw the water level down a measured distance by pumping, 
note time required for surface to reach its original level, and 

147 



ea 



CORPS UF ENGINEERS 



compute capacity in gallons between the two levels; or run a 
pumping test, using containers of known volume. 

b. Springs-— Note the time required to fill a container of 
known capacity or measure the flow of the outlet stream. 

c. Streams. — Determine the flow by Q=aw where Q is the 
quantity of flow in cubic feet per second, a the area of cross 
section of the stream in square feet, and v the mean velocity 
(% of surface velocity in the main current) of the stream. 
A rectangular weir built of planks can be used for measuring 
the flow in small streams. (See table LVH.) 



Tabij: LVII .—Discharge over a sharp crested rectangular weir 12 
inches wide 1 



Depth 
(Inches) 


nullum 
per minute 


Depth 
(Inches) 


Gallons 
per minute 


Dciith 
(inches) 


Gallons 
per minute 


1 


36 


w 


375 


m 


900 


1H 


50 




405 


m 


939 


1M 


56 


m 


436 


9 


978 


1H 


84 




468 




1.02O 


2 


102 


m 


500 


m 


1.062 


2W 


122 


6 


533 


m 


1. 101 


sn 


MS 




687 


10 


1, 147 


m 


165 


it 


601 


10M 


1, 190 


3 


188 


6?4 


636 


10M 


1,234 


m 


212 


7 


672 




1. 279 


m 


237 


7M 


708 


ii 


1, 323 


3H 


283 


7W 


745 


HM 


1,369 


4 


290 


7M 


783 


11 M 


1.411 


4H 


317 


8 


821 


UH 


1. 1111 


(ft 


346 


8M 


860 


12 


1* 508 



1 1 JeiJth Is measured from crest of weir to surface of water impounded by weir. 



d. Artesian wells. — Measure the height of the jet from the 
top of the vertical well pipe and obtain flow from table LVUI. 
For pipe diameters not listed, Q varies approximately as the 
square of the diameter. 



148 



REFERENCE DATA 68-69 



Table LVIII.— Flow of artesian wells in gallons per minute 



Height of 
let (inches) 


Diameter of pipe (inches) 


Height of 
jet (Inches) 


Diameter of pipe (inches) 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


It... 

1 


3.96 
5.60 
7.99 
11.3 
13.9 
16.0 
17.9 


15.6 
22.4 
32.0 
45.3 
55.5 
64.0 
71.6 


35.6 
50 4 

71.9 
102 
125 
HI 
161 


15 

20 


22.0 
25.4 
36.9 
35.8 
43.8 
58.9 
68.0 


S7.8 
102 
1'33 
142 
175 
236 
272 


198 
228 
278 
323 
394 
531 
612 


2... 


30.. 


4.— 


40 


6 


60 


8 


108 


10 _ 


144. 







■ 69. Development of Sources. — a. Dams. — A type design for 
a small dam (usually not over 5 feet in height) is shown in 
figure 84. 



L«— SS'O'TO 2'6"-» 




DRIVEN. 

Pkuhb 84.— Design for a small dam. 



149 



69 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



&. Springs.— The following steps should be taken in develop- 
ing a spring: 

CI) Provide a substantial collecting basin. 

(2) Walls of water-tight casing should extend 1 to 2 feet 
above and below ground surface to exclude surface wash, 
V-shaped ditches constructed on the up-hill side of the spring 
Will assist in diverting surface wash. 

(3) Provide a tight cover to keep out dust, leaves, etc. 

(4) Prohibit dipping of buckets or containers in spring. 

(5) Supply water by pipe to storage tank or point of 
delivery. 

c. Wells. — (1) Types. — Based on the method of construc- 
tion, wells are classified as shown in table LIX. 



Tabi^e LIX. — General characteristics of weUs 



Type 



Normal 
diameters 



Normal 
maximum 
depl hs 
(feet) 



Method nf con- 
st ruetiau 



Dag. 



Driven 



Bored. _. 



Drilled.. 



3-6 feet.. 



20-30. 



inches. . 



4-S Inches.. 



1^-12 inches. 



100.. . 



300 or more. 



Pick and shovel; 

use bucket and 

windlass to raise 

material. 
Pipes driven with 

maul, pile driver, 

or water Jot. 

Hand or power- 
driven augers. 



Power-driven per- 
cussion 
drills. 



See fig. 85 for de- 
vi- lupment of exist- 
ing well. 

Can he used in quick- 
sand if equipped 
« itli 5|>eei;i] sir .in 
or. 

Cannot he construct- 
ed in solid earth 
containing rock 
strata or largo 
houlders. 

Uscd in hard material 
or wliero water 
exists at great 
depth. 



150 




Note.— If pump ESould require priming . use purified water only 
lor this purpose. 

Figtob 85— Development or existing well. 



<2) Increasing yield of existing wells. — One or more of the 
following means can be used to increase the flow of existing 
wells: 

<a) Increase diameter, 
(b) Deepen well. 

(C) Set off charge of explosives at bottom of well 
(<f) Clean strainer. 

(e) Pack pocket around strainer at bottom of well with 
gravel to prevent entrance of fine materials. 

(/) Construct Infiltration galleries tor ditches) across line 
of flow leading to well. 



151 



70 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



■ 70, Purification:. — a. General. — All water, whatever the 
source, should be considered dangerous until it is tested and 
designated as safe. Regardless of apparent absence of con- 
tamination, however, water should always be disinfected be- 
fore being used for drinking purposes. For a summary of 
common methods of water purification, see table LX. An 
improvised purification plant is illustrated in figure 86. 




Figure 86.— Improvised purification plant. 



b. Standard purification units. — (1) The M3 purification 
truck has a gross weight of 8 tons. When filtering average 
water in the field this unit has an approximate output 
capacity of 70 gallons per minute, It is equipped with con- 
nections for 2 I / 2 -inch intake and 2-inch discharge hose. The 
truck itself is a 2y 2 -ton, 6 by 6 standard quartermaster truck. 

(2) The M1940 portable purification unit has a gross weight 
of 750 pounds. Its capacity for filtering average water in the 
field is approximately 10 gallons per minute. Both suction 
and discharge connections are for 1 '/2-inch hose. The unit 
may be transported in any standard truck or trailer of '/ 2 -ton 
capacity or larger, 

c. Water tests.— The purification truck has facilities for 
making water tests to determine turbidity, pH value, and 
residual chlorine content. The portable purification unit 
includes facilities for determining pH value and residual 
chlorine content. 



152 



REFERENCE DATA 




Tab^e UK.— Methods of water puri/Eoaiwrn— Continued 



Method 



Effect on quality 



Remarks 



Dlsfm 



Destroys most bacteria.. 



Pure chlorine or chlorine 
contained in the form of 
calcium hypochlorite, so- 
dium hypochlorite, or 
chlorinated limo (bleach- 
ing powder). 



Tincture ol iodine. 



Heat. 



Softening.. 



Removes or reduces hard- 



Hyilratod lime 



Zeolite minerals - . 
Heat 



When chlorine is employed a sufficient amount must be 
added to produce a residual chlorine content of 1.0 part 
per million. Allow 30 minutes before water is used for 
drinking:, and before residua] chlorine test is made. 
Hypochlorite for I.yslcr bat's is Issued "in scaled glass 
tubes. Hypochlorite as supplied commercially usu- 
ally contai ns from GO to TO percc nt free chlorine by weight . 
Chlorinated Htno usually contains from 20 to 30 per- 
cent free chlorine when fresh. 

Two and one-hall teaspoon fu Is of standard 7 percent tinc- 
ture of Iodine are used for one Lyster bag (36 gallons) ; 
2 drops are used per quart (canteen) of water. Wait 
30 minutes after mixing before drinking. 

At least 10 minutes of steady boiling is required to steril- 
ize water. 

Reduces carbonate hardness. Converts hardness duo to 
magnesium compounds to form which can be removed 
by sods ash. 

Reduces noncarbonnte hardness, except when due to mag- 
nesium compounds. (For magnesium compounds see 
remark under hydrated lime,) 

All types of hardness may he removed by percolation of 
water through leoltte filters. 

Prolonged boiling wiH reduce hardness due to bicar- 
Donates. 



Activated carbon 



Distillation 



Eliminates certain tastes 
and odors and reduces 
chemical contamination 
by adsorbing dissolved 



Reduces odors and tastes 
due to dissolved gases: re- 
moves objectionable gases 
such as COj; adds oxygen 
lor oxidation of ferrous iron 
to assist in Its precipita- 
tion. 



Converts salt water into 
fresh water. 



Activated carbon . _ 



Air...- 



Heat'. 



Ordinarily applied in mixing basins prior to sedimenta- 
tion or filtration, either separately or together with 
coagulant. Often applied in form ol black alum or ac- 
tivated alum (alums with activated carbon added dur- 
ing manufacture). Also used as filtering material. 
Dosage of carbon ranges from 0.5 to 60 or more parts 
per million. 

Accomplished by passing water through the air as mist 
or small droplots. The finest spray is the most effec- 
tive. Also accomplished by forcing compressed air 
into water, or by the introduction of air through nega- 
tive pressures created when water flows through a con- 
stricted passageway* 

Pouring boiled water from one sterile container to another 
will help to eliminate the flat taste. 

Removes impurities having boiling points greater than 
water. Often employed to purify excessively contam- 
inated water. Requires elaborate plant and large 
quantities of fuel. Other methods of evaporation and 
reeondensation w ju achieve similar results. 



' For water containing biearbonates, or up to 400 iiarts per million of chlorides and sulphates, ion exchange materials such as zeokarb 
or deacidlta (or equivalent) can be used alone or in combination for demineralizatldn. 



71 CORPS OF 

■ 71. Pipe Plow Computations. — a, Manning formula, — The 
Manning formula for flow of water under pressure in pipes 
is as follows: 

r _ 0.590 a'/' «jj 

n 

Formulas f2) and (3) are convenient forms for solving for 
pipe discharge and for head loss due to pipe friction. 

g = 0.46 — - (a) 
^, = 2.87^, (3) 

where 

u=mean velocity of water in feet per second. 
d=diameter of pipe in feet, 

r=mean hydraulic radius"- 

4 

J=length of pipe in feet, 
£fj=loss of head in feet in length 1. 

s=mean slope of hydraulic gradient in distance — 

Q=discharge of pipe in cubic feet per second. 
n— Manning coefficient of roughness, varying directly with 
the degree of roughness of the pipe. The value for 
cast iron pipe commonly falls between 0.013 and 
0.015, with extreme values of 0.011 and 0.017. 
b. Nomograph. — A straight line on the nomograph given in 
figure 87, determined by any two variables in the Manning 
formula, will pass through the corresponding values of the 
other two variables. 



156 



REFERENCE DATA 




Picube 87. — Nomograph for solving Manning formula. 
-41 11 157 



12 



CORPS OF 



■ 72. Water Requirements. 

Tables LX1. — Daily water consumption in gallons 



IThcso estimates must be modified according to circumstances, psiwcially in hot 
climates. Tlio maximum requirements may exceed those of the average month by 
from 15 to 40 percent and those of tho average day by over 100 percent.] 







Gallons 




Unit consumer 


i "<m(l it kjns or u.sv. 


JHT III! it 


Ftemarks 




]ier clay 




Man <|ier capita eon- 


In combat: 






sumption). 


Minimum - 


to !4 


For periods not exceed- 






ing 3 days. 






1 






In bivouac: 










1 


nr Inking and cooking 








only, for periods not 








exceeding 3 days. 






2 






1 PIEJ.wnirj iaaiLi|jT 










5 


Drink fog, cook inc. and 








washing only. 




Normal 


15 


Includes also bathing. 




Field hospital 


25 






Semipermanent camp. 


■Jv 


lut iuue^ Hiso wnicr ior 








baths, toilets, etc. 




Permanent camp 


M 






Permanent hospital... 


200 




Horse or mule, large 


Aiinitnum. _ 


3 to 5 


r itr |H"rlr>i|S Ilui t'Xtlf (J- 


domestic animals 






ing 3 days. 


{consumption per 








animal). 


Normal 


10 






Camps and canton- 


30 to W 






ments. 






Motors (consumption 


Lfv^l and rolling 


1.4 tft U 
f-Q LO >3 


riiOHflOWtfl /in vi-vti fii 

i ft. | n 1 1' m vii siztr in 


per vehicle). 


country; 




vehicle. 




Mountainous country. 


Mtoi 


1)0. 




(Vrrnanent camps — , 


30 to 50 




Locomotives (consump- 


Standard military 


XI, 1)00 


150 gallons per train 


tion per locomotive). 






mile. 




Commercial 


60,00!) 


200 gallons ]icr train 
milo. 


Shower bath 


Sflm I perm anp nr.build- 


300 


Depends on mim!>er of 




iTigs (consumption 




using personnel and 




per fixture). 




frequency of use. 


Water closet.. .- 


do 


40 


Do. 


Lavatory, basin ot 3tnk- 


do 


20 


Do. 


Urinal 


do 


40 


Do. 











158 



REFERENCE DATA 



Section VI 
ELECTRICITY 

■ 73. Standard Generator.— a. Description, — The standard 
set is a 5-kva. portable alternating current generator. Its 
source of power is a 4-cylinder gasoline engine. The unit is 
normally carried on a l'/a-ton truck and can be manhandled, 
on or off, by eight men, although skids and tackle are prefer- 
able. 

b. Capacity. — It may be assumed for purposes of rough esti- 
mates that this unit will supply from 100 to 115 40-watt lamps 
or their equivalent, 

■ 74. Military Requirements. — When camps are lighted there 
need not be more than four 25- watt lights per barrack (20 by 
100 feet) and one 40-watt light per officer. Electric lamps 
should be provided in recreation halls. The forward eche- 
lon of an infantry division requires about 75 lamps of 40 to 60 
watt rating. One standard 5-kva, generator will supply this 
requirement. Requirements for other units are about as fol- 
lows: 



Table LXn. — Electric light requirements 



Unit 


Approximate 
ncimhcr of 

outlets to be 
furnished 


Fewer In 
kilowatts 
n."|utreii 




75 
150 
BOO 
600 


4.5 
0.0 
30. 
36.0 
135,0 
4.5 


Army headquarters 


OHQ 


Communications lone _ __ _ 

lO.OOO-bod hospital > _ 











i Power is for sterilising apparatus, dentist's tools. X-rays, etc., as well as Tor light. 



159 



75 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



■ 75. Useful Information. — a. Power in direct current 
<<L c.) circuits.— In a d. c. circuit, power in watts (W) is 
equal to electromotive force (e. m. f .) in volts (E) multiplied 
by current in amperes (/) : W=EI. 

b. Power in alternating current (a. e.) circuits. — In a. c. 
circuits, true power in watts (W) is equal to the product of 
the power factor in percentage (p/) by the e. m. f. in volts 
(£) by the current in amperes (7) : W=(pf) EI. 

c. Ohm's law for d. c. circuits.— In d, C. circuits, the 
e. m. f . in volts <E) is equal to the current in amperes (/) 
multiplied by the resistance in ohms (R) : E=IR. 

d. Units. — (1) Kva. — The unit used for measuring the ap- 
parent power of an a. c. generator operating on circuits sub- 
ject to change in power factor is the kilovolt-ampere. 

, „ „ volt X ampere 

kllovolt-ampere= ~— — 

1,000 

(2) Kw.— The unit used for measuring true power in an 
a. c. circuit is the kilowatt. 

ldlowatt=kilovolt-ampere X power factor (p/) 

13) Hp.— The unit used for measuring mechanical work 
is the horsepower (ftp). 

1 ftp=746 watts 

<4) Wire sizes. — The unit used for measuring wire sizes is 
the mil. 

1 mil=.00l inch 

In tables, wire size is expressed in circular mils (eioss-sec- 
tional area). The wire size in circular mils is the square of 
the diameter in mils. 



160 



REFERENCE DATA 76 



■ 76. Form for Electrical Reconnaissance Report. 

ELECTRICAL RECONNAISSANCE 

Reconnaissance party: 

Area ... Date 

Map — Photographs 



Prime movers 


( iHienilnrs 


Transmission lines 


Type - --- 


Type 

(Alternating or ilirect 
current.) 

X umber of machines 

Kflovnlt amperes 

Kilowatts Volts 

Amperes . Power factor. 

Involutions per minute- - 
Horsepower.. Maker 

(Iriti-rfll condition 


Type 


(Steam, internal com- 
bustion, water 
wheel.) 

Fuel 

(Coal, oU, gas.) 


(2-wtre; 3-wirc Edison; 
l, 3 phase alter- 
nating current.) 

Current Voltage.... 

(Alternating current or 
direct current.) 

Conductors., 

(S:?p and material.) 


(Amount on hand.) 

(Feed.) 
Horsejtower 


(On poles or below 
ground.) 

Transformers 

Substation 

(Whether transformer 
or synchronous con- 
vpjtor.) 

Condition 


(Eted and amount on 
hand.) 

Water supply... — 








(Character and 
amount.) 
Oenerai condition 


s'tifitAfiiMrd 


Iiltctrtml suppli-s 




General kind 




Interconnections _.. 











Recommendations 



161 



77 corps of engineers 

■ 77. Wiring. 



Table LXIII. — Electrical characteristics of copper wire 



llrown 
.V SMariK' 
i M. (t S. J 


Cross section 


We it; lit. resistance, and 


Safe current -carry- 

fiifr capacity in 
ant|jercs fur lonsths 
of tots feet or less 


















1 lis. meter 
in mils 


Area in 
Hii'iiliir 
mils 


Pounds 
per 1,000 
feet 


Feet (XT 

pr»Utnt 


Olims per 
1,000 feet 


Rubber 
itisuhition 


Bnre or 
weather- 
proof win? 


0000_. 


4li0. IHS 


21 1, 600 


639. 33 


1. 56 


O.04906 


225 






409. m 


167, 805 


S07. 01 


1.97 


.06186 


175 


275 


OO 


364. SO 


133,079 


402.09 


2.49 


.07831 


150 


225 


o._ 


324.95 


105,592 


319.04 


3. 14 


.09831 


125 


200 




289.30 


S3, 694 


252 88 


3.95 


. 12401 


100 


150 


2- 


257, A3 


GO, 373 


200.54 


4.99 


.15640 


00 


125 




229.12 


52,634 


15SJ.03 


629 


. 19723 


80 


100 


4 


204.31 


41,742 


126 12 


7.93 


.24869 


70 


90 


5. 


181. 9-1 


33, 102 


100.01 


10.00 


.31361 


55 


SO 


« 


162. 02 


26,250 


79.32 


12 61 


.39M6 


50 


70 


•7. 


144.28 


20, 816 


62 90 


15.00 


.49871 


38 


54 


8. 


12S. 49 


16,509 


49.88 


20.05 


.62881 


35 


50 


•9. 


114.43 


13,594 


39.56 


25.28 


.79281 


28 


38 


10— 


101. 89 


10,3*1 


31.37 


31.38 


1,0 


25 


30 


•11 


SO. 74 


8,234 


24.88 


40.20 


1.2607 


20 


l F* 


12. 


80. 81 


6,530 
5,178 


19.73 


60.69 


I. 5898 


20 


25 


•13 


71.9* 


15.05 


63. 91 


2.0017 


14 


22 


14 


61.08 


4. 107 


12.41 


80.58 


25908 


15 


20 









Notes. — 1. Sizes marked * are not used lor electrical work. 

2. For aluminum wire the carrying capacity of any given size 
should be taken as 84 percent of the value given in above table. 

3. If current exceeds the safe current-carrying capacity of the 
largest wire, two or more wires should be used. 



162 



REFERENCE DATA 77 



Table LXtV. — Bill of electrical material for one standard 20 by 100 
foot barrack 



Item 


Quun- 
tiLy 


Unit 


Size 


Weight 

in 
pounds 


Description 


1 

2 .. 

3 


210 
1 

2 
4 

50 

2 
4 
10 

4 


Feet 

Each. .. 

Each ... 


No. 14.... 


5W 

1 


Wire, R. C. fl. B. solid copper. 
Cut-out, main line, plus fuse, 

dun ble pole. 
Fuses, plus. 

Socket, pull, brass, S22 IPifcS), 

cat. 38, base BP. 
Knohs, split porcelain, with 

pail and leather washer. 
Tulies. porcelain. 
Lam [is. Mania, 115-volt. 
Screws, for cut-out and socket, 

No. 8, F. 11. hrteht. 
Cord, linen, with chain und 

lint tassel. 


, ,,r, , 1 ■ iil. 
l,W-\Otl., >Hr- 

ampere, 
15,fiuipero 


4 

5 .. 

6 

T 




1M 
TM 


Each..., 

Each .... 
Each... 
Each... 

Each 


No. 12. 

•Js hy 3 inches. 
25 watts - 




8 

9 


J J-4 inches 




3loet 










Ftetms 88.— Lighting Installation using porcelain knobs. 



163 



77-78 




FictniE 96 —Applying rubber and friction tape. 




■JMNS EXTEND OUTO INSULATION 




Figote 97.— Combination splice. 

Section VII 
RIGGING 

■ 78 Anchorages. — Determine the holding power of deadman 
as follows: 

a. For a given cable pull, the number of square feet of dead- 
man bearing surface required is determined by dividing the 

168 



REFERENCE DATA 



78 



total pull to be placed on the deadman by the value given for 
the depth and cable inclination selected (see table LXV) . 
Having determined the bearing surface area, select a length 
and section corresponding to this area. 

b. In order to insure that the deadman selected will not 
fail in bending, test by: 

__ 2667bft 3 for a rectangular timber, or 
L 

leood" for a round timber 
L 

where 

r=maximum allowable cable pull in pounds. 

b— width of contact face of deadman, in inches. 

ft=depth of deadman in direction of .pull, in inches. 

d~ diameter of round timber, in. inches. 
L= length of deadman, in inches. 

c. If the maximum allowable pull T, as computed, is less 
than actual pull, a timber of greater depth or diameter should 
be used, and test computation repeated until a satisfactory 
section is determined. If maximum allowable pull found by 
the formula is greater than the required cable pull, the dead- 
man is satisfactory in bending. 



Tjible LXV. — Holding power of deadman in loamy soil 



Ml'; HI 

depth of 
anchorage 


Declination of jnill (vertical to horimntai} and safe 
resistance (pounds per square foot) 


(feet) 


Vertical 


1/1 


1/2 


1/3 




3 


600 


850 


1,300 


1,450 


1,500 


4 


1,050 


1,750 


2,200 


2,600 


2,700 


5 


1,700 


2.300 


8, (XX) 


4,000 


4,100 


6 


2, -100 


3.800 


s, ioo 


s.soo 


0, ft 10 


7 


3.200 


6, 100 


7.000 


8.000 


S.4O0 



d. Typical forms of holdfasts and deadmen are shown In 
figure 106, 



169 



39-81 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



■ 79. Slings. — The most common sling is made by splicing 
two ends of a rope together. To use the sling, pass it around 
the article to be lifted. Pass the bight formed by one end 
through the bight formed by the other and then over the 
lifting hook. If the sling is the same size as the lifting rope, 
it should make a minimum angle of 30° with the horizontal. 
At this angle, the stress in each branch of the sling is equal 
to the stress in the lifting rope. If the angle is greater than 
30% the load is limited by the strength of the lifting rope; 
if less than 30°, by the strength of the sling. 

■ 80. Gin Pole or Standing Derrick. — To erect a gin pole, 
lash the tackle to the spar or suspend it by a sling run through 
slot in the head of the pole. Locate the foot of the gin pole. 
Lay a line through the point to mark the location of the fore 
and back guys. Lay another line at right angles to this. Lay 
off on the four lines distances equal to twice the length of the 
spar for level ground, plus necessary allowances. Erect 
anchorages at these points. Make the four guys fast to the 
top of the spar. Lay the spar along one of the guy lines 
with the butt nearly in the footing. Fasten a footrope to 
the butt and to an anchorage on the same side of the footing 
as the spar. Raise the top by hauling the back guy with a 
running tackle. Let the fore guy out. Take up the slack on 
the side guys. Continue until spar is in position, keeping 
the slack out of all guys. For heavy poles it may be necessary 
to erect a light gin pole or shears first and use this to erect 
the heavy pole. In hard ground, dig a hole about 1 foot deep 
for the butt of the gin pole. In soft ground, prepare an 
excavation with a wood floor base to transmit the ground 
pressure over a larger area. 

■ 81. Knots, Lashings, and Tackle. 



170 



REFERENCE DATA 




Clove hitch 

Figitre 93. — Types of knots. 
171 



Timber hitch Timb« hitch tnrj Half hitch 




Bowline on a Bight 
Picche »9.— Types of knots. 
172 



ft EFER £ NCE DATA 



81 




CORPS OF 




REFERENCE DAI A 




Eye Spl'«. 



Figure 102.— Splices. 



175 



corps or 

Table DXVI.— C!iaracteri$t^ of knots 




1. Overhand.. 



2. Figure of eight. 

3. Square or reef '. 



4. Single sheet bend 
or weavers'. 2 

sheet 



fi. Double 
bend. 1 



fi. Two hall bitches * 



Direction)-! for tvfne 



At end of rope to pre- 
vent unlaying or to 
prevent end from 
slipping through 
block. 

Sumo as above 

To Join two rofjes of 
same aiiC, 



To Join ropes, Mpe- 
cifllly of unequal 
sbie. 

To join ropes of un- 
equal size. especially 
wet ones. 

To belay or make fast 
end of roi>e around 
own standing part. 



■ figure 



do - 

See figure. Pass standing 
and running parts of each 
rope through loop of the 
other in £amo direction. 
Ends of each rope turn 
around end of other, 
rather than standing part. 
See figure 



-do. 



Same as above 



7. Round turn and 

two hair 

hitches. 

8. Fisherman's bend To fasten a roiw to a See figure. Take two turns 
or anchor. ring or anchor. around the Iron, then 

hnlt hitch round the stand- 
ing part and between the 
ring and the turns, then 
half hitch round standing 
part. 

i Care must ho taken not to tio a thief or granny as these will slip. 
» More secure than a reef but more diflieult to tint ie. 

* Mote secure than a single sheet bond, 

* Must never be used for hoisting a spar. 



»■!■ figure. End may tn- 
lashed down or seised to 
standing jjart to prevent 



*ee figure. 



176 



REFERENCE DATA 81 



Table LXVT.— Characteristics of fcnots— Continued 









figure 


Name 


Use 


Directions for tying 


enee 


g. Clove bitch - 


To fasten a ropa at 
right angles to a spar 
or at beginning of 
lashing. 


St* figure. If end of spar is 
frou, hitch made by first 
forming two loops, placing 
right-hand loop over other, 
and slipping the double 
loop over the end of the 
spar. Otlsrvviso, passond 
of roj)c round spar, bring 

It ,ifi 1 i'l tin* i - t 1 r 1 1 1 of si a mi- 
ll up lo tnu [ii^ljl ui ™^ lu 

in& part, cross over latter, 
make auotber turn around 
spar* bring up tiba ©ml be- 
tween spEfT, last turn and 
stand ingpmL 


98 




To haul or lilt spars. . - 
To hoist fir haul a spar 




99 


10. Timber bitch . 
31. Telegraph hitch. 
12, Hawser bend... 




n 


To Join Iwo large ea 

bias. 


reo itpUrP- s ^acu « uu la 
seized t© own standing 


99 




To form a loop that 
« ill not slip. 


See f^ure . Make looii w itb 
i part imdcrnfisith* 
pass cud from betow 

1 I ,r. ll !■■ r k llWtTI H'tVH'r t ITU 

I 'ii. -> fsruOf u*"i v-^mj 

M-ifi^t ufhiIHijI V In « ii 'I It I'll 111' 
j'.ll , lift :l- - 1 11'- '1 — -III-. 

part, then down tlirough 
the Soop, 


99 


13. Bowline' 


14. Bowline on a 


To make a comfort. 


Soo figure. Mako first part 


99 


bight. 


ableelingtoraman. 


as above with double part 
of rope, then pull bight 
through sufficiently to al- 
low it to be bent past loop 
and come up in proiwr 
position. 




15. Running bow- 


To make a slip knot 


Soo figure, i'ass end around 


99 




that will not bind. 


spar. Form a loop around 
the standing part with the 
running ond. Make a 
bowline oil the sanding 
part below the loop— on 
the running-end side. 





i Can be easily loosened when strain is taken off, but will not slip under load. 
When u.sod for hauling spars, a halt hitch is added near ond ol spar. 
• Length of bight depends on purpose fur which knot is rouuirod. 



177 



8l corps of : 



Table LXVI. — Characteristics of knots-^ Continued 



Name 


Use 


Directions for tying 


Figure 
refer- 
ence 


16. Cut's paw 


To secure* rope to the 


See 11 guro. Form two ciitia! 


too 


mouth of h hook. 


bights; ttike ono In each 
hand and roll lliem along 
the standing part till sur- 
rnUij'h'd l>y throe Iletels of 
the standing pure; then 
bring both loops (or 
bights} together and pass 
over the hook, and mouse 
Ihe hook. 




17. Sheep shank 


To shorten a rope or 


See figure. Take a hall hiich 


1U0 


pan a weak spot. 


with the standing ports 






around the bights. 




18. Rolling hitch. 


To haul a larger rope 


Sec figure. Take two turns 


100 


or cable. 


around the large rope in 
the direct ion in which it is 
to be hauled, and cine half 
hitch on the other sido of 
the hauling part. 




19, Blackball hitch. 


T o attach a single ro pe 
to a hook of a block 
tor hoisting. 




11)1 




21). Mooring knot.. 


To make fast to a 


See figure. Take two turns 


101 


mooring or snubbing 
post. 


around the mooring or 
snubbing post, pass the 
free end under the stand- 
ing part, take a third turn 
above tho other, pass the 
free end between tho two 








upper turns. 


101 


21. Carrick bond — 


To fasten guys to der- 
ricks. 






22. Wsll knot and 
crown on wall. 


To finish the ond of a 
rope to prevent un- 
laying. 




101 





178 



REFERENCE DATA 




81 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




182 



DEFERENCE DATA 81-82 




Figure 114,— Gun tackle (mechanical advantage: 1). 




Figure 115. — Whip on whip (mechnnlcal advantage: 4). 

■ 82. Rigging Tables. 



Tabus LXVII.— Working strength of wire and manila rope 



Diameter 


Circum- 


Weight per 100 feet 


Working strength 
(pounds) 


ference 


Stool 


Hemp 


Steel 


Manila <>r 
hemp 


H 


m 


IS 


S 


4,000 


400 




lii 


:t9 


7 


7,000 


S50 


« 


2 


ISO 


13 


11,100 


I.S20 


H 


2H 


88 




15,300 


1,900 


J* 


2^4 


120 


24 


20, 700 


l'. :tuo 


1 


m 


188 


28 


at. ixhi 


3, 100 


1W 




250 


40 


42,000 


4,300 


m 


4M 


305 


04 


58,700 


5,000 


fH 




625 


S4 


70,000 


7,900 


2 


m 


632 


115 


00,000 


10,300 


2M 




ess 


117 


110,000 


16, .500 


3 


m 


L421 


255 


110,000 





183 



82 CORPS OF 



Table lxvlTI.— Relation of sheave and mire rope diameters 



Type ol rope 


Desirable 
sheave BDtl 

drum 
diameter 1 


Safe 
sheave 
and drum 
diameter 


Minimum 
sheave and 

drum 
diameter 


Multiply nil fig- 
ures lu table 




72 


42 


28 


Xrtinc diameter. 


Oby 10 


It 


30 


20 


Do. 


6 by 37 


27 


IS 


14 


IJn. 


8by 19 


31 






Do. 



' For standing rones, these values may be reduced by 60 percent. 
1 A by 7 rotw is one of fl strands of 7 wires each. 



Table LXIX. — Lead line pull /actors and efficiencies for hoist or fait 
Wire ropes 



Number of parts of ropo 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 


S 


9 


10 


Efficiency, percent 


96,1 


62. 4 


88.0 


88.5 


82.2 


79.0 


76.0 


73.0 


70.3 


Lead lino pi'U factor 


.12 


.3fi 


.28 


.23 


.20 


.IS 


.1*5 


.13 


.14 



Note.— The stress In the lead line equals the load multiplied by 
the lead Hue pull factor. 



184 



REFERENCE DATA 



82 



Table LXX.— Simple block and tackle rigging manila rope 
(factor of safety 3) 



to be 
lift*! 

(tons) 


Total nunilwr of sheaves 
in blocks 


2 

(2 simple 
blocks) 


3 

[1 simile, 
1 

double) 


4 

yiou me 
blocks) 


1 1 .1- r 1 . 

(I Quu me 
1 1 riple 


I 

{'.] Triple 
blocks) 


1^ 


Smallest iHrmiss'ble ru[io 














diameter (inch) 


» 




H 




?» 




Lead line pull (pounds) ... 


540 


380 


300 


250 


220 


\ 




54 




H 


H 


Vi 




Pull — - — . 


1, 100 


760 


wo 


500 


440 


1M 


Rope (inch).-. _ 






M 


a 


Vt 




Pull... 


L8M 


1, 100 


900 


760 


060 


2 


Rope (inches) 




J* 


K 


H 


M 




Pull 


2,201) 


i. soo 


1,200 


1,000 


880 


3 






m 


1 


7 A 


K 




Pull 


»,;«»] 


2, 300 


1,800 


1,500 


1,300 


4 


Rope (taetoes) 


lh 


IN 


m 


1 


1 




Pull 


4,400 


3,000 


2,400 


2,000 


1,800 


6 






m 


1«6 




m 


8 


Pull 




4.500 


3,000 
IH 

4,800 


3,000 

m 

4,000 


2,600 

lMe 
3,500 













Taki.k LXXL-- 7Vo)ifrti*s of chains 



Size {inches) 


Safe working 
strength (iwuuds) 


Approsimate 
weight ([Kiunds 
per 100 feet) 


H 


1,800- 3,000 


17E 


Ms 


2,500- 3,800 


230 


W 


3,300- 6,000 


300 


H 


5,000- 7,000 


470 


H 


8,000-11,000 


650 


■A 


10, 000-1] \ 000 


sse 


1 


12, 000-20, 000 


1, 130 


m 


16,000-26.000 


1,420 




1». 000-32, 000 


1,650 



Note. — Chains are manufactured In such a wide variety of grades 
that no definite strength can be given for any one size. The above 
properties are limits for some standard sling and dredge chains. 



83-84 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Section VIII 
CONCRETE 

■ 83. Materials. — a. Shipment atid storage of cement, — Ce- 
ment is usually shipped in bags of 94 pounds each (considered 
1 cubic foot) or barrels equivalent to four bags each. It should 
he stored in a weatherproof building and at least 8 inches 
from walls and ground or floor to insure ventilation. 

b. Fine aggregate.— That part of the aggregate passing a 
%-inch screen is called fine aggregate. CJay and silt should 
not constitute more than 3 percent of the sand by weight, al- 
together with coal particles, shale, shell, etc., not more than 
5 percent by weight. (See table LXXTI for a suitable 
gradation.) 

Table LXXII. — Gradation of fine aggregates 

t I Percent by 

K weight 




100 
il.5-100 

35-75 

n i -a-. 

2-7 



c. Coarse aggregate. — Coarse aggregate will not pass a %- 
inch screen. Broken stone, gravel, slag, and cinders are com- 
monly used. Maximum size of coarse aggregate depends on 
the use to be made of the concrete: for plain concrete in mass 
construction, lVz to 6 inches; for reinforced work, 1 inch; for 
thin reinforced members, % inch. 

d. Water. — Water used in concrete should be clean and free 
from excessive amounts of oil, acid, alkali, or or game matter. 
Sea water is undesirable but may be used in emergency. 

■ 84. Proportioning Concrete Mixes. — The following tables 
can be used to select trial proportions for concrete mixtures 
used for various types of work: 



186 



REFERENCE DATA 84 
Table LXXIII,— St rengt h of concrete mixtures 



Water con- 
tenti(U,S. 
gallons i«r 

01 -pound 

sack ol 
cement) 


Assumed com press ivo 
suennth. at 28 days 
(pounds per snu am 
im-K) 


0) 


O 


8 


1.750 


2,750 


7 


2,300 


3,300 


6 


3.000 


4,000 


t 


:t, no 


4,000 



i Surface water or moisture tarried by aggreinito must be included lis part of mking 
water. 

> Data published at time water cement ratio strength law was announced in 1813. 
These values should bo used in the absence of preliminary tests and rueful control. 
* Values representative of present day cements. 



Table LXXW. — Approxiviate quantity of surface water carried, by 
average aggregates 



AKgreKate 


Water (gallons per cuble foot) 




am. 

About J4. 
About a. 
About Vt. 




Moist sand- . 


Moist gravel or crushed rock _.. 







Table LXXV.— Suitable slumps for concrete 





Slum 


p (belies) 


Type of structure 








Minimum 


Mail mum 


M iLssive s.-l-i i. us, [i.r. i irrn s ami OiHirs hid on ground. . 


1 


4 


Bea^y slabs, beams or walls 


3 


6 




4 


8 



187 



84 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Table LXXVI.— Trial mixtures for various water-cement ratios 



Slump (inches) 


Trial mix dry com pact volumes for 
]nil\innim MA 1 i f iu'lti^uIi 1 imlirrited 




1 inch 


2 inches and over 


Water-cement ratio Ms eailons per sack 


Mtoi 


1:2:3 


1:2:3M. 

biHiK 




mum 










Water-cement ratio 6 gallons per sack 


Mtol 


1:2M:3M 

1:2.3 

felMiSji 


i-.2-.rn. 

l:lfi:3. 






Water-cement ratio fijl gallons per sack 


3 to 4 


1:2W:3K 

l-.W-.W 


1:214:4. 

um-.m. 

l:2:3W. 




1:2:3 




Water-cement ratio 7>.i gallons per sack 


Htol - 


1:3:4 

l:21S:3?i 

i^MiSM 


1:3:41*. 

IsSHrtM. 

iw.m. 


3 to 4 

5 to I 







Notes. — 1. Water-cement ratios Indicated Include moisture con- 
tained in the aggregate. 

2. Proportions axe given by volume, aggregate dry, and compact. 
Thus 1: 2: 314 Indicates 1 volume of cement. 2 volumes of sand, and 
3 '/a volumes of coarse aggregate. 

3. If the aggregates are to be measured In the damp and loose con- 
dition they will occupy greater volumes than when dry and com- 
pact. Amount should be determined by test. Approximate aver- 



188 



■ 85. Quantities of Materials. — Use table LXXVH to estimate 
quantities of materials required in concrete construction. 



Table LXXVUA.— Quantities of materials 



Mil by volume, Job damp materials 


Materials per cubic yard 
of concrete 


Product 
ofa 
1-tsw 

batch 
(cubic 
feet) 


' t h mcnr 


Sand 
{cubic 
feet) 


Stone 
(cubla 
feet) 


1:1M:2 


9.0 


12.0 


19, 1 


2.82 


1:M4;3 


7.6 


1L4 


2&8 


3.55 




7.1 


14.2 


21.3 


3.32 


1:2:3.5 


6.5 


13.0 


22.7 


4. 16 




6.0 


12,0 


24.0 


4.47 


1:2.2:3 


6.8 


15.0 


20.4 


3,97 


(.■>■>■■; "i 


6.3 


13.9 


22.2 


4.29 




6.5 


16.1 


19.4 


4.13 


1:2.5:3.5 


6.0 


15.0 


21.0 


4.49 


1:2.5:4 


5.8 


14.0 


22.4 


4. S3 


1:2.5:5 .. 


5.0 


12.5 


25.0 


B.43 


1:3:5 


4.7 


14.1 


23.5 


5.76 


1:3:6 


4.2 


12.6 


25.2 


6.38 


l:3K:4 


6.2 


16.2 


20.8 


5.21 


l:3M:5 


4.6 


14.5 


23.2 


i. S2 


MffcH 


4.3 


16.0 


21.4 


6.32 


l:3S* :(i 


3.9 


14. T 


23.5 


6.88 




15.5 


23.3 






1:2. 


12.8 


25,6 




1.77 
2.13 







Tabu: LXXVIIB.— Dimension* for measuring boxes 







Inside measure Cinches) 




Capacity (cubic feet) 










Length 


Breadth 


Belitht 


1 


12 


12 


12 


M 


15 
18 


15 
35 


W 






1*4... 






15 


15 


I3« 


2 




18 


18 


\m 


2M 




IS 


IS 
18 
IS 
18 


12 
133* 
I4H 
16 


2W. _._ 


18 
IS 


2N 


3 - 


18 





282736*— 41 13 J89 



S6 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



■ 86. Mixing, Placing, and Curing, ^^^f* J £ 
concrete mixed by hand should not exceed 1 cubic « £ 
larger than can be placed in 30 minutes. Machine mixing 
Souid Sinue for at least 1 minute after all materials are 

ta b h »ff.-The following precautions should be observed: 

(1) Fill forms from several points to prevent segregation. 

(2) Tamp concrete in layers 1 to 2 feet in thickness. 

(3) Provide construction joints to allow for temperature 

Pour concrete continuously whenever possible. If im- 
possible to pour continuously, remove all laitance, dust etc., 
anTroughen the old surface or dowel the old and new surfaces 
tneether by keyways or steel bars, 

TSS3S Concrete, in order to gain ite full strength, 
must be kept moist for from 2 to 10 days after placing (de- 
ending on the type of cement used) . This may be accom- 

Pll J) ^ovlring concrete with wet burlap, canvas, straw, or 
earth and wetting it down periodically. 

<t>) Laying water pipe around green concrete and allow- 
ing water to trickle through small holes in pipe. 

(c) Building earth or plank dykes around surface and 
keeping it flooded with water (for flat surfaces) 

(d) Wetting forms before placing concrete to prevent ab 
sorption of mixing water by wood. 

(2 The time of set is greatly affected by the curmg tem- 
peratures As the temperature falls, the set is slowed down, 
and below freezing weather makes the placing of concrete 
extrernely hazardous. The temperature of setting concrete 

m r> l S£SttS S£S^ addition of lime 

« £5, m Place with insulating material 

^iSTSi heat by canvas enclosures heated 
by salamanders, live steam, or unit heaters. 



190 



REFERENCE DATA 



■ 87. Forms. — a. Materials. — White pine, spruce, and the 
softer southern pines are the best lumber foT forms. All 
lumber should be dressed at least on one side and both edges. 
Either 1- or 2-inch boards are suitable for lagging. 

(1) One-inch lagging requires— 

Studding or joists- 2 by 4 to 2 by 6 inches. 
Distance between supports : 18 to 24 inches. 

(2) Two-inch lagging requires — 

Studding or joists: 4 by 6 to 4 by 10 inches. 
Distance between supports: 4 to 5 feet. 

b. Cleaning. — Remove all sawdust, shavings, dirt, old con- 
crete, etc., from forms and wet or oil them before placing 
concrete. 

c. iietttotxiZ.— Usually, forms should remain in place longer 
for reinforced than for plain concrete, and longer for hori- 
zontal or loaded than for vertical or unstressed members. As 
a guide: 

Walls in mass work: 1 to 3 days. 

Thin walls: in summer, 2 days; in cold weather, 5 days. 

Columns: in summer, 2 days; in cold weather, 4 days- 

d. Type forms.— The following figures illustrate the general 
principles of form construction: 



191 




CHAPTER 3 



DEFENSIVE MEASURES 

Paragraph 

Section t Field fortifications- _ _ 88-110 

H. Camouflage,- -- 111-128 

HI. Explosives and demolitions 139-138 

IV. Barriers and antimechanized uelenae 139-146 



Section I 
FIELD FORTIFICATIONS 
88. Defensive Areas. — a. Squad and platoon. 

Table LXXVIII. — Frontages (In yards} 





Minimum (heavily wootlud 
terrain} 


terrain j 


Interval 

iMnise 
an™ 


Frout- 

actually 

cecunied 


Total 
front 
defended 


Interval 
between 
defense 
areas 


Frirat- 

HUe. 
actually 
iwciiDied 


Total 
front 
defended 




25 


30 


55 


100 


50 


1» 


Plntnon, less 1 squad (2 
















id 


75 


125 


150 


IX 


250 


Full jilatoon (Ji squads). .. 


100 


100 


200 


200 


200 


400 



b, Company. — A company can defend a front of 400 to 
600 yards; front and depth actually occupied are from 200 
to 400 yards and 100 to 300 yards, respectively. 

c. Battalion. — A battalion can defend, in heavily wooded 
terrain or with limited observation and fields of fire, a front 
not to exceed 800 yards; in average terrain, not to exceed 
1,500 yards. 



193 



88 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




Figure 118.— Battalion defense area. 
Note— Locations and fires of all weapons of the battalion to 
include light machine guns of rifle companies and locations of 
their 60-mm mortars arc shown. Primary target areas for the 
81 -mm mortars and normal barrages of supporting 
shown Note that some of the 60-mm mortars are attached to 
front-line platoons and that the caliber .30 light machine guns 
are employed in the defense in the same manner as cahber .30 
heavy machine guns. 



Table LXXIX.— Placing of barrages and concentrations fired by 
batteries of Field Artillery (dimensions in yards) 



Caliber 


Type 


Burst 
of 1 
shell 


Area, ol barrage 


Area of 
concen- 
tration 


Minimum sate 
distance from 
Infantry 


Normal 


Emer- 
gency 


In open 


In 
trenches 


75-mm_ 


Gun 


5X30 


100 i 200 


100 X 300 


100-3(10 


20O-5O0 


200-400 


105-mm, 


Iluwitnf. 


9*40 


1001300 


100 X 400 


axMoo 


300-400 


200-400 


155.mm. 




jo X 70 






200-400 


000-700 


300-400 


IHowittei 







194 



REFERENCE DATA 



89 



■ 89. Effect of Projectiles on Field Fortification.^!. 
Small arms. 



Table LXXX.— Sa/e thickness of material to protect against non- 
armor-piercing bullets, caliber .30 (174 grains) 



Material 


Maximum 

penetration 
Cinches) 


Least thick- 
ness to bo 

provfded for 
protection 
(inches) 




0.3 


0.5 




2.0 


3.0 


nrick masonry (well cured) - 


S.O 


7,0 




8.0 


10.0 




12.0 


14.0 




H.5 


18.0 


Solid oak - --. 




20,0 


a.o 


Earth loam - 




30,0 


36.0 






50.0 


72-0 





Table VXXX1.— Penetration of caliber .30 and caliber .50 
piercing bullets 



Tj-1.ii 



Projectile 
weight 



Armor penetration 
In Inches at— 



100 yards 300 yards 



Caliber .30, M6 

Caliber .50, M6 



174 

"S3 



H 



Tabuj LXXXII.— Penetration of special armor-piercing weapons 



Antitank (AT) gun 


Projectile 
weight 
(pounds) 


Muzzle ve- 
locity (feet 
per second) 


Armor pcuctrat ion in inches 
at— 


fiflfl yards, 
normal im- 
pact 


1,000 yards 
20° impact 




0.72 


3.000 


1.95 


1.3 




1.35 


2,000 


2,20 


1.5 




3.60 


2,000 


1.90 


Li 



195 



8!) 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



b. Artillery and aircraft— Formula for maximum penetra- 
tion of projectiles, impact normal: 

_ 0.23 WAK 

where 

P=penetration of projectile in feet. 
W=weight of projectile in pounds. 
D= diameter of projectile in inches. 
A=a constant depending on striking velocity according 
to table LXXXm. 



Table LXXXIII.— Values of A in penetration formula 



Velocity 
(feet per 
second) 


A 


Velocity 
(feet iter 

SMSlTlll) 


A 




Velocity 

(feet pet 

second) 


A 


ISO 


0.33 


657 


4. 77 




1, 180 


8.76 


197 


.72 


7J0 


5.34 




1,SS0 


0.15 


262 


li 21 


788 


5.89 




1,320 


9.54 


328 


1.76 


854 


Ml 




1,375 


B.92 


394 


2.36 


920 


6.92 




1,445 


10.29 


460 


297 


935 


7.40 




1, 510 


10.64 


625 


3.63 


1.060 


7.87 




1.675 


10.98 


593 


4.17 


1,113 


8,31 




1,640 


11.20 



K=a constant, depending upon the nature of the resist- 
ance, as follows: 

0.64 for concrete masonry. 
0.94 for stone. 
1.63 for brickwork. 
2.94 for sandy earth. 

3.86 for ploughed earth. 

5.87 for clay soil. 

W and D must be obtained from characteristic tables of 
the projectile under consideration. 



196 



Table LXXXIV 



.— Pen st ration of field artillery projectiles in 
ordinary compact soil 



Caliber 



75-mm_. 
105-mm. 
155-mm. 
S-fncb-- 
240-mm. 



Striking 
velocity 
(feet per 
s« 1) 



730 
800 
770 
700 
806 



Angle of 
impact 
(degress) 



Penetration ffeet) 



Verlieal Horizontal 



4 

5 
7 
9 
14 



Table LXXXV.— Effect of angle of impact on penetration of artillery 
projectiles 



Angle of Impact 


Behavior of projectile 


LfeSH than 7° 


Ricochets. 

Tlicocheti after traveling short distance or remains In 

ground at slight depth. 
Tendency for nose of projectile to turn toward surface. 

Slight penetration. 
Maximum penetration. 


7° to-2&°. 


25" to 40° 


Greater than 40" 





Table LXXXVI.—fJroter dimensions of artillery projectiles 



Caliber 


Slight penetration 


Medium penetration 


Diameter 
(feet) 


Depth 
(feet) 


Diameter 
(feet) 


Depth 
(feet) 




4 


1.5 


5 


3 




6.5 


2.5 


7.5 


3.76 


156-mm __ _ 


10 


1 


12 


5 




11.5 


4 


13.5 


I 


240-ium 


14 


i 


15 6 


6.S 



197 



89 corps of 

c. Aircraft bombs. 

Table LXXXVII. — Crater dimensions of aircraft bombs in 
sandy loam 



Weight ol bomb (pounds) 



With instantaneous fine; 

100 --- 

300 - 

BOO 

1,100 

2,000 - 

Willi delay fun: 

100 - 

300--- - 

000 ---- 

1,100 

2,000 ■ 



Depth of 
crater (feel) 



Earth dis- 

at surface \ bjc 
(feet) Jg$g 



4 

10 
17 
28 
47 

30 
70 
170 

320 
n a 



Table LXXXVIII.— Typical dimensions of aircraft bombs 



Weight ol bomb (pounds) 



2,000 (light case).. 
1.100 (heavy case). 
MO (medium case) 
220 (medium case) 
100 (medium case) 
20 (antipersonnel). 



Over-nil 
lens lb 1 

3vu 


Max in] um 
diameter 
(inches) 


Sectional 
pressure ' 
(pounds per 
=r|iinreirifb 


14 0) 


24 


4.4 


6 (4) 


12 


9.7 


5 (4) 


IS 


3.1 


4W (2) 


10 


2.8 


4 (2! 


9 


1.6 


2 (!) 


i 


1.0 



i Figaro in parentheses in this column are lengths of charge container only, 
i Weight divided by roaiimum cross-sectional area. 



198 



REFERENCE DATA 



APPROXIMATE DEPTH OF PENETRATION 
FOR UNIT SECTIONAL PRESSURE OF BOMB 













1 












f 










/J 

V VP 










M 


w 




1 






// X 


✓ 


w 














: ; 

























ZOO 400 600 600 IO00 
STRIKING VELOCITY 1 FEET PER SECOND 



1200 



Note— Gives approximate depth of penetration at normal angles 
of impact, for unit sectional pressure. To obtain total penetration 
multiply value for penetration taiten from the figure by sectional 
pressure given In Table LXXXVUI. 

Picuke 119.— Penetration of aircraft bombs. 



199 



gg_90 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

Table 1*XXXIX.— Striking velocity of aircraft bombs 
[Based on aircraft speed <>f 200 m. |». 1.. with bombs weighing over 100 pounds] 



Height of release 


Anglo of 
imptiet with 
vertical 
((ii'cn i s 


striking 
velocity 
(feet per 
second) 


■ 1,000 


|t 


KM 


3.000 


33 


530 


5.000 


2T. 


010 


7,500 


22 


710 


lo.ooo 


19 


800 


V>. 500 


17.5 


880 


is, DM 


18 


950 



■ 90. Trench Requirements.— A deliberate trench must— 

a. If a fire trench, provide a good field of fire to permit 
maximum use of defender's weapons and permit of flank or 
cross fire as well as fire to the front. 

b. Provide protection against enfilade fire and localize 
effects of a bursting shell by frequent abrupt changes in 
direction. 

c. Be neither so wide as to receive undue numbers of pro- 
jectile hits nor so narrow as to limit circulation. A com- 
munication trench must be wide enough throughout to permit 
two columns of men in single file to pass readily, or have 
widened places at frequent intervals. 

d. Be sited to take advantage of natural drainage. 

e. Be simple and easy to lay out. 



200 



REFERENCE DATA 



91 



■ 91. Trench Profiles and Breastworks. 




PROFILE 



© Standing type. 
Figure 120.— Development of a fox hole. 



201 



COUPS OF ENGINEERS 




§ creeping type. ® Standing type. 



Figuhe 121.— Slit trenches. 




JIguhe 122.— Slit trench to protect against shell fire. 



202 




203 



91 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




REFERENCE DATA 



91 




Figube 129— Simple standing trench, showing development Into 
standard fire trench, types A and B. 




Figure 130.— Standard profile, communication trench, type C; broad 
communication trench. 



282736°— 41 H 205 



91 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




92. Trench Traces. 



45* 



6 

PACtS h — paces ■ 

li-O" +0-0 

a. L \- 

X ^o 



paces h— wets -*| 

15-0 40-0 




OCflKAl TMCf Udf\ 



/ 

OCTAGONAL 




ZIGZAG 




GMCWLTMCtllllb 



WAV/ 




THt ANGlt THErDlMOHAL MAKES 
WITH THt fSOBT IS VABIAHt- TO 
COfirOdM WITH GB0UH9 ILEOUIBt* 

. . MtHTS and mw rtar. 



tCHtLON 

Note— For squads with over 8 men all 16-pace dimensions may 
be f 2 paces per additional man. Make a general change 
In direction every 75 to 125 paces. 

Figure 132.— Standard trench traces. 
207 



92-93 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




FcGtntE 133.— Approach crossing parallel, octagonal trace. 




Figure 134. — Approach crossing parallel, octagonal trace, alternate 

method. 



■ 93. Trench Reconnaissance and Time and Labor Esti- 
mates. — a. Points to be covered in trench reconnaissance. — 
(1) Sketch or overlay showing general location, length, and 
azimuth of principal straight stretches, and relation of con- 
trolling points to existing works. 



208 



reference data 



93 



(2) Type of profile to be used. 

(3) Estimate of nature of soil and proportion of tools (picks 
and shovels) required. 

C4) Estimate of amount of excavation. 

<5) Estimate of time, men, fools, and materials. 

b. Time and labor estimates. 

Table XC. — Ratio Of length of general trace to actual length of 

trench. 



'ryjN 1 j it Irrneh trisr-*' 



Ooefflrirot 



Octagonal 

Zigiag 

Echelon... 
Wavy 



1.07 
' 1.08 
1 II 



: This will vnrv orasiili-ruluy tt itli :htii;i] Inn-.'. 

Table XCI,— Man-hour estimates for day work,' single relief, vsing 
pioneer tools ' 



Number of cubic fret of excavation per man in— 



soil 


1 hour 


2 hourti 


3 hours 


4 hour* 


tt hours 


Minors 


1 hour? 


8 hours 


Hard' , — 


15 


24 


32 


■111 


47 


M 


61 


07 


Average ' 


23 


37 


49 


to 




81 


in 


uiO 


Light ' 


30 


so 


W 


80 


M 


[118 


121 


133 



i Night work is two-thirds as effective, as day work. 
' Contemplates rest of 10 minutes every hour after Orst hour. 
1 All must be loosened wiih ]iick. Requires 2 picks to 1 shovel. 
* It<s|iiircs a pick for each shovel. 

i Requires little or no picking. lirquiri'H 1 pick to 2 shovels. 



209 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




REFERENCE DATA 93-94 



Table xcm.— Man-hours /or clearing brush for fields of fire 





M ft hod 


Man-hours 
required 


Area 100 square yards covered "with brush 


Chopping or sawing 


7 


under 6 inches in diameter and contains 


trees and clearing 




25 trees 8 inches to 2 feet in diameter 


brush. 




(heavy clearing). 






Area 100 square yards covered with under- 


do._ 


3.5 


growth and some trees not ejeeeding 12 






Inches in diameter (medium clearing). 






Area 100 square yards covered only with 




1.5 


small brush (light clearing). 







■ 94, Trench Drainage. 




Figure 135.— Siting trenches to eliminate low spots. 




Figure 136.— Surface water carried over trench. 



211 



94-95 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




Figure 137. — Surface water carried under trench. 



95. Trench Revetment. 




Note —Revetment required,— 34 sandbags per 10 linear feet of 
parapet of type A; 132 sandbags per 10 linear feet of parapet and 
front slope of type B, 

Fill bags three-fourths full. 

Revet at slope of 3 on 1 to 4 on 1. 

Lav bags with beds perpendicular to slope. 

Lay bottom row headers on prepared bed: alternate Intermediate 
rows as stretchers and headers; complete with a top row of headers. 

Lay bags with seams and choked ends Inward. 

Break joints. Beat bags into rectangular shape with back of 
shovel; tuck in corners of bags when, placing. 

Revetment will last longer if wire netting, preferably doubled, la 
anchored over face. 

Plenum 138.-^3andbag revetment. 

212 



REFERENCE DATA 



9D 





213 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




REFERENCE DATA 



95 



PICKETS ABOUT 



PLAIN WIRE *lTh 
A TURN AROUND 
EACH PICKET 
AND TWISTED 
UNTIL TIGHT 




BRUSHWOOD V TO i" OIA. BUTTS ALTERNATES 
TIME TO CONSTRUCT UNIT SHOWN It MAN HOURS 

143.— Brush hurdle. 



215 




Figure 144.— Brush gabion. 



216 




CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




■ 96. Trench Accessories. 




CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




Btomus 150 Spllnterproor command post with compartments con- 

strutted In side ot trench. 



REFERENCE DATA 



9Ci 




Bui/t /n secf/onr so- 
ar to be eari/y 
ft carried and erecfed 
by sniper 



Bu'lfet proof p/afv 



SECTION shomi$ shelf smffercir . 
ajfourua/ manner oTpka>$ in movnd 
rronf armored phfc for camoc/faeed 
cover 




nouM 151.— Sniper's post. 



282736 " —41 15 221 



96 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




REFERENCE DATA 



96-97 




■ 97. Intrenching Tools.— a. Issue.— Sets of intrenching 
tools are included in the equipment of the following unite: 

Infantry 

Engineer battalion, combat (triangular division) __ 3 

Engineer regiment, combat (square division) 6 

Engineer regiment, combat (corps) 2 

Cavalry 

Engineer squadron * etS 4 



223 



97-98 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



b. Contents.— The more important items of intrenching sets 
are listed in the following table: 



Table XCIV.— fiitr entitling sets 



Items I 


Sets 


Siie 
with 
hand If 
(inrhes) 


T/nlt 
weight 
each 
{Jumna's) 


Infantry 1 


Cavalry* 


Crowbars — 


4 


2 




12.0 




125 


65 


315 


8.0 




250 


139 


39 


4.6 




26 


13 


m 


5.5 




IS 


6 


•x> 


1.8 




13 


7 


36 


4.5 


Wire cutters - -- 





6 


20 


5.3 



i Sandbags (MM), tracing tapo, flies, nails, and other miscellaneous items are nut 
listed. (Sue Eng. Sup. Cat. for compile Uste.) 
» Total weight 3.04S pounds (including saw and twl grinder hoses). 
> Total weight 1,800 pounds (Including saw and tool grinder hoses). 



c care.— After use, tools should be carefully cleaned and 
dried; if some time is to elapse before the next period of use, 
they 'should be lightly oiled or greased. Wooden handles 
should be inspected and rough spots removed by sanding or 
scraping. Cutting tools should be sharpened on a grinder 
rather than with a file. Saw setting should be done by a 
skilled mechanic. 

d Storage— Care must be taken to see that all tools are 
returned to proper boxes and that each box contains the num- 
ber and kind of tools specified on the list attached thereto. 
A dry, well-ventilated place is needed for the storage of tools, 
as well as for sandbags, tape, and similar accessories. If bags 
become wet they should be dried separately before being 
bundled and put away. Tools are wired together in bundles 
of Ave for ease in handling. 

■ 98. General Procedures in Location. Design, and Construc- 
tion of Obstacles.— a. (1) Cover throughout by Are. 

(2) Have protective obstacles under observation at all times. 

(3) Deny to enemy cover of sheltering ground. 



224 



reference data 



98 



(4) Take advantage of natural irregularities of ground and 
natural growth. 

<5) Provide for all-around protection. 

(6) Avoid any regular, geometric lay-out that discloses 
location of position and its elements. 

(7) Use belts from 4 to 10 yards wide separated by intervals 
of from 15 to 40 yards. 

b. Barbed wire entanglements are the most nearly ideal of 
the artificial obstacles against personnel. In estimating wire 
requirements-for a battalion defense area, consider the follow- 
ing points: 

U> Total weight of protective wire equals total weight of 
tactical wire, 

(2) Tactical wire (4 by 2 pace double-apron fence) weighs 
10 pounds per linear yard of entanglement. 

(3) Protective wire <4-strand fence) weighs 4 pounds per 
linear yard of entanglement. 

(4) Length of protective wire equals 2V Z times length of 
tactical wire. 

(5) Length of tactical wire equals VU times frontage in 
yards. 

1 6i Length of protective wire equals 3V B times frontage in 
yards. 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



"53 — ^ ^ St c i=i 

Iffflll 


3 

2 g » « « 


IS e a o 

IIPI 




fif If 
fill* 














If 
H 


A 
pi 

1 














o 

1 ! 












! 
1 

n 


i 7. 


S IIS 3 s 

V to rt m i- — 


n 
II 


i §s§ i s 

■ 


1 PiC 




8 

B 
E 


1 
1 


1 ill 




















1 


i in 


a s 




1 


I 

1 

1 

i 


' s c 
: S - 

ft 


is 

: 

s 


i 
* 


■ h 
: a 

: 1 

il 
! 5 

if 

: a 

1 


tj 

g — 

& = 
a 

c c 

1 = 

111 

If] 


j 



REFERENCE MTA 93 



Table XCVX— CJiaraetfrisfies of wire-entanglement materials 





Height 


length 


Number 

easiiy 
carried hy 
one man 


Weight 

(if OIW- 

liian load 


Wooden pickets; 


J -..•.-.■.,(< 


Ft. In. 




Pounds 


Lour, 3- to -i- inch diameter. 


12-19 


i 


3 


36-13 




4-S 


2 6 


S 


33-48 


Sctvw pickets: 












g 


4 10 


t 


36 




a 


2 8 


6 


36 






1 9 


s 


32 


Aogie sroii: 








40 


Long 


10 


6 




Short 


8 


3 S 


s 


38 


KB rwl wire, 420 yards 


iw 


1,3*0 


H 








W 


4-6 


32-M 



1 Full-sized reels ara carried by 2 msn upua their shoulders by means of stats ur 
picket passed through holo la rct\. 



227 





REFERENCE DATA 99 



Table XCVTI.— I>ri!I for erecting 50 yards of high taire entanglement 

{two rows of stakes) 



Materials 


Wiring party 


Carrying pftrty 


S bundles (total of 32) long 
pickuts. 

3230-yard bobbins barbed wire 


(carriespliers). 
IS men (each carries a rack 

stick). 
1 man, carrier. 


officer. 
18 men. 

■ 


Nos. 


First task 


Second task 


Third task 


Noncommissioned officer leads party to head of work, fates fron t panel and indicates 
location of pickets; supervises work. 


1 

i 


Kadi man carricj! out 
1 bund lo pickets. 


3'laee picfcels of front 
panel. 


String bottom horttontal 
wire, zigsag panel. 


3 
i 


Mace pickets of roar 
panel. 


String first -diagonal wire 
zigzag panel. 


5 
6 




Screw in pickets of front 
panel. 


String second diagonal 
wire, zigzag panel. 


7 
8 




Screw In pickets rear 
panel 


-Spring top horizontal 
wire, zigzag panel. 


S 
10 




String bottom horizon- 
tal wirn, front panel 


String bottom horizontal 
■wira, rear panel. 


II 
12 


Each man carrii^ out 
3 bobbins barbed 
wire. 


String first 4liagbn&l wire, 
front t*ancl. 


String first diagonal wire, 
rear panel. 


13 
I* 


String second diagonal 
w ire fron t pani 'L 


String second diagonal 


IS 
Ifl 




String top horizontal 
wire front panel. 


String top horizontal 


17 




Carry out 6 bobbins 
barbed wire. 





Note.— Numbers 1 to 4 place pickets lightly In ground. In string- 
ing, odd numbers run out bc-Dblas, even nuzntoers fix wire to pickets. 



229 



Table XCVQ.— Drill for erecting SO yards of high wire entanglement 
(two rows of stakes)— Continued 



Each additional row of high-wire entanglement 



Material 


Wiring party 


Carrying party 


4 bundles {total of 16) long 

pickets. 
24 30-yard bobbins. 


1 noncommissioned offi- 
cer. 
10 men. 


1 noncommissioned 

officer. 
12 men. 



Note. — A drill for erecting additional low of high wire entangle- 
ment may be readily Improvised based upon above drill for first 
row. 




ELEVATION OF FENCE 

PmmtE IBS. — Spider web entanglement, showing use of 4 -strand 
fences as obstacles around combat group without disclosing 
occupied portion of trenches. Can be developed Into single or 
double-apron fence. 




Ficube 156.— Double-apron fence (4- and 2-pace type). 



Table XCVIIf. — Drilt for erecting 50 yards Of double-apron fence 
(4- and 2-pace type) . 



Material 


Wiring party 


Carrying party 


t bundles EMS long pickets. 


1 noncommissioned officer 


1 noncommissioned 


4 bundles (S2) anchor pickets. 


(carries pliers). 


officer. 


»1 &i-ywii bobbins barbed wire. 


9 men (cony rack sticks). 


15 men. 



231 



CORPS OF 



XCVirr.— Drill for erecting 50 yards of double-apron fence 
{4- and 2 -pace type) — Continued 



Nos. First tswsk Second task Third task 



Fourth task Fifth task 



Noncommissioned officer fames out 1 bundle Jong pickets, 
to Nos. 1, 2, and 3 location ol pickets. Supervises work. 



1'ates oft" End indicates 



1 


Each car- 
ries out 1 
bundle 

lonpj pick- 
eta 




Hun out front 
diagonal wire. 


Run out bot- 
tom horizon- 
tal wireol 
fence. 


Run out rear 
diagonal wire. 


I 


Lay out and 
sctew In 
pieketsofthe 
center line. 


Fasten front 
diagonal wire 
on anchor 
pickets. 


Fasten bottom 
horizontal 
wire of fence 
on pickets. 


Fasten rear 
diagonal wire 
on long pick- 
ets. 


I 


CIS 




Fasten front 
diagonal w ire 
on long pick- 
ets. 


No?. 2 and 3 
working on 
alternate 
pickets. 


Fasten rear 
diagonal wlra 
on anchor 
pickets. 


4 




T.f.y out and 
screw in 
front anchor 
pickets. No. 
i places pick- 
ets at head 
of wort. 


Run out trip 
n ire, front 
apron. 


Run out sec- 
ond horizon- 
tal wire of 
fence. 


Hun out top 
horizontal 
wire, rear 
apron. 


s 


Each car- 
ries out 1 


Windlass trip 
n ire to diag- 
onal wire. 


Fasten second 
horizontal 
wire of fence 
on pickets. 


Windlass top 
horizontal 
wire todiac- 
onal « Ire, 


6 


bundle 
anchor 
pickets. 


Lay out and 
screw in rear 
anchor pick- 
ets. No. 7 
places pick- 
et at end of 
work. 


Run out sec- 
ond horizon- 
tal wire, front 
apron. 


Run out til ird 
horizontal 
wire of fence. 


Run out. sec- 
ond h orien- 
tal wire, rear 
apron. 


I 




"Windlass sec- 
ond horizon- 
tal wire to 
diagonal wire. 


Fasten third 
horizontal 
wire of fence 
on pleketr. 


Windlass see- 
oud horizon- 
tal wire to 
diagonal wire. 


s 






Run out top 
horizontal 
wire, front 


Ron out. top 
horizontal 
wire of fence. 


Run out trip 
wire, rear 
apron. 




Carry out 26 bobbins of 


apron. 









barbod wire. 


Windlass top 
horizontal 
wire to diag- 
onal wire. 


Fasten top 
horizontal 
wire of fence 
on pickets. 


Windlass resi 
trip wire to 
diagonal win-. 



Note.— Diagonal and apron wires begun and finished on end 
anchor pickets. Horizontal wires on fence not carried down to end 
anchor pickets. 

232 



REFERENCE DATA 





Figure 157— Double-apron fence (6- and 3-pace type). 



Table XCTX. — DrflZ for erecting 50 yards of double-apron fence 
(6- and 3-pace type) 



Material 


Wiring party 


C"arryfnj; party 


3 bundles (total of H) long 


1 noncommissioned officer 




pickets. 


(carries pliers). 


officer. 


•( bundles (total of 22) anchor 


8 men (carry rack sticks). 


IS men. 


pickets. 






2« 30-yd, bobbins barbed wire. 







233 



99 CORPS Or ENGINEERS 



Table XCIX.— Drill for erecting 50 yards of double-apron fence 
(S- and 3-pace type)— Continued 



Nos. 


First task 


Second task 


Third task 


Fourth task 


Filth task 


Noncommissioned officer carries ami lays out I bundle long pickets. Pacts oil and 
indicates to N'os, 1 and 2 the locution ol j tickets. Supervises work. 


1 


Eacb car- 
ries out 
1 bundle 
long 
pickets 


Lay out 
Rnd screw 
tn pickets 
of center 
line. 


nun out and 
fasten front 
diagonal wire 


Run out and 
fasten bot- 
tom horiion- 
tal wire of 
fence. 


llun out and 
fasten rear 
diagonal wire. 


2 


3 
* 


Each 
carries 
outl 
bundle 
anchor 
pickets. 


Lay out 
and screw 
in front 
anchor 
pickets. 
No. 3 

places pick- 
ets at head 
of work. 


Run out and 
fasten front 
trip wire. 


Run out and 
fasten sec- 
ond horizon- 
tal w ire ol 
fence. 


Run out and 
fasten top 
horizontal 
wire, rear 
apron. 


5 


Each car- 
ries out 1 
bundlo 
anclior 
pickets. 


Lay out and 
screw Lq 
rear anchor 
pickets. 
No. 6 places 
pickets at 
end of work. 


Run out and 
fasten second 
horizontal 
wire front 
apron. 


Run out and 
fasten third 
horizontal 
wire offence. 


Run out and 
fasten second 
horizontal 
wire, rear 
apron. 


1 


7 

8 


Carry out 28 bobbins of 
wire. 


Run out and 
fasten top 
horizontal 
wire, front 
apron. 


Run out and 

fasten top 
horizontal 
wire of fence. 


Run out and 
fasten trip 
wire, roar 
apron. 



Note. — Diagonal and apron wires begun and finished on end 
anclior pickets. Horizontal wires ott fence not carried down to 
end anchor pickets. 



234 



REFERENCE DATA 99 




t— s FttCts-rtt 5 P -H*— 



•—6 MtS-» 




Caps b£tw£Eh srettowS 
WW St CLOSED WITH 



M.J. tie CIVES t 




figure 158.— Low wire entanglement (6- and 3-pace type). 

Tabu C. — Drill for erecting 50 yards of low wire entanglement 
(6- and 3-pace type*) 



Material 


Wiring party 


Carrying party 


2 bundles medium pickets (I of 


1 noncommissioned officer 


1 nntittimm issirmed 


o,l of 6). 1 


{carries pliers). 


officer. 


4 bundles {22) anchor pickets.* 


fl men (carry rack sticks). 




20 3£Vyd. bobbins barbed wire. 







* Changes in drill for low wire (4. ntid 2-t.iuee type) : 
1 Three bundles medium pickets (l.ot & 3 of 5 each). 
»Four bundles {32) auehor pickets. 



235 



99 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



TiSM C— Orfll for erecting 50 yards of lots wire entanglement 
(6- and 3-pace type* )— Continued 



Nos. 


JiTst task 


Second task 


Tbird task 


Fourth task 


Fifth task 


Sixth task 


Noncommissioned oDlrar ! pacts oS and indicates to Nos. 1 and 2 locution inr tueir 
pickets, Supervises work. 


1 


Carrlesout 
1 bundle 
medium 
pickets. 


Carries out 
1 bundln 
medium 
picket!. 


Lay out 
and screw 
in center 
lino of 
pickets. 


String and 
fasten 
front di- 
agonal 
wire. 


String and 
wind- 
lass lop 
hori- 
zontal 
wire, 
front 
apron. 


String and 
wind- 
lass top 
horl- 
jonttd 
wire, 
rear 
apron. 


s 


Carries out 
1 bundle 
anchor 

pickets. 


Carries out 
1 bundle 
anchor 
pickets. 


3 


Carries out 
1 bundle 
anchor 

pickets. 


Carries out 
1 bundle 
anchor 
pickets. 


Lay nut 
and screw 
In outer 
anchor 
pickets. 


Slri!i«!iiul 
wind- 
lass trip 
wire, 
front 
apron. 


String and 
fasten 
hori- 
zontal 
wire, 
center 
line. 


Siring and 
windlass 
Hrt'oinl 
horizon- 
tal wire, 
rear 
aj iron. 


4 


Carries out 
4 bobbins 
turned 
wire. 


Carries out 
4 bobbins 
barbed 
wins. 


6 


Carries out 
4 bobbins 

■wire. 


Carr ies out 
2 bobbins 
barbed 
■wire. 


Lay out 
and screw 
In Inner 
anchor 
pickets. 


String and 
wind- 
lass sec- 
ond b or- 
thopia! 
" wire, 
front 
aiiron. 


String and 
fasten 
rnir di- 
agonal 
wire. 


String and 
windlass 
tripwire, 
rear 
apron. 


6 


Carries out 
4 bobbin? 
barbed 
wire. 


Carries out 
2 bobbins 
barbed 
wire. 



•Changes In drill forlowwire (+- and 2-paec type): 

• 3 bundles medium pickets (l of 6, 2 of & each), 
M bundles {32) anchor pickets, 

• Carries out 1 bundle medium pickets. Paces off and Indicates to Nos. 1 and 2 
location for their pickets. Lays out own pickets. Sufiervises work. 



Nora— No. 3 places picket at head of work. No. 5 places anchor 
picket at foot of work. Diagonal wire of rear apron and horizontal 
wire on center line of pickets are not carried down to end anchor 
pickets. Low wire entanglements are slow to erect at night owing 
to difficulty of seeing pickets. 




REFERENCE DATA 



99 




■ 20FT- 



® Concertina extended. 
PlotraE 156. — Concertina. 



282736 18 



99 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




CONCERTINA EXTENDED- 

Figure 160— Double -belt concertina entanglement. 

TABLE CL— Drill for erecting SO yards of concertina entanglement 



Material 


■Wiring party 


Carrying party 


A bundles M) long pickets. 

4anehur pickets. 

14 coils concertina. 

2 60-yard colls barbed wire. 

.TO wire staples. 

24 8-Inch pieces No. Id plain 
wire. 


1 nontrommlssioned officer 

tcarries pliers). 
10 men (Nos. 1 and 2 each 

carry 12 pieces plain wire; 

8 and 10 each carry IS 

staples; all carry rack 

sticks). 


1 noncommissioned 

officer.. 
20 men. 


Noa. 


First task 


Second task 


Third task 


fourth task 


Fifth task 



Noncommissioned officer carries out 4 anchor pickets. Paces oil distances and lo- 
cates pickets. Supervises work. 



Carry out 
4 long 

pickets 
■nth. 



Each lays out 
and screws 
In 4 long 



Open out and 
place in front 
li oo of pickets 
1 concertina. 



Open out and 
place In front 
line of pickets 
1 



Wire coils together in both 
belts. No. .1 
enemy side. No. 2 o] 



Open out and 
place in sec- 
ond line of 
pickets Icon- 



Hun horiion- 
tal wire along 
top of pick- 
ets, first row. 



Fasten wire. 

to pickets. 



REFERENCE DATA 99 



Table CI. — Drill for erecting 50 yards of concertina entangle- 
ment—Continued 



Nos. 


First task 


Second task 


Third task 


Fourth task 


Fith task 


I 


Cnrrii'snul 
1 concer- 
tina and 
cut tie 
tapes. 


Lays out and 
screws in 4 
anchor pick- 
ets. 


OiK-n out and 
place in front 
line of pick- 
ets 2 con- 
certinas. 


Ojien out and 
place in sec- 
ond line of 
pickets 2 con- 
certinas. 


Windlass coils 
to wire at 
3 points be- 
tween each 
2 pickets. 





Carry out 
1 concer- 
tinas and 
cut tie 
tapes. 


Carry out 
concert! na 
col) and 
cut tie 
topes. 


Run horizon- 
tal wire along 
top of pickets, 
second row. 


7 
B 


Open out and 
place In front 
line of pick- 
ets 2 concer- 
tinas. 


Open out and 
place in sec- 
ond line of 

pickets 2 con- 
certinas. 


Fasten wire to 
pickets. 

Windlass coils 
to wire at 3 
points be- 
tween each 2 
pickets. 


» 
10 


Carry mil 1 
coil barbed 
wire. 


Open out and 
place in front 
line of pick- 
ets 1 concer- 
tina. 


Open out and 
place In sec- 
ond line of 
pickets 2 con- 
eertlnas. 


Staple down 
both bells. 



Note.— Nos, 6, 7, 8. f>, and 10 place coils in Intervals between 
pickets in tasks Nos. 1 and 2. 



239 



100 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




Note. — Made from commercial 420-yard, 105 -pound reels Bob- 
bin contains 30 yards o( wire — weight 8 to 9 pounds. 

Figure 164. — Malting bobbin. 



242 



REFERENCE DATA 



100 




100 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



ANioH viae 




■ALT&R.MATE- HtfHOD 

Fioure 166.— Method of fastening two wires together by 
"windlass lug," 



REFERENCE DATA 



101 



■ 101. Miscellaneous Obstacles. 





Pjcoee 167. — Knife rest or cheval-de-frlse. 

Note. — Used to stop temporary gaps In entanglements, barricade 
trenches leading toward enemy, barricade roads, and as underwater 
obstacle when made of iron framework. 



245 



101 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




Tne ilmsnod 

Spirals withbarbei 
•wire, fastened at 
points -with smootlv 
wife. 

Connected to 
another hartyy® 

a spiral cod. 



Taken afTthe pe^s 
and. opsned up 
forming a sphere 



8oclO -turns around 
the pegs, fastened 
at two places -with 
small smooth -wire 




Fkhtre 168. — Gooseberry fused to block trenches; should have 
diameter greater than width ot trench). 




169,— Hedgehog (used to block trenches) . 



246 



REFERENCE DATA 



101-102 




Note.— Dead abatis made by telling trees toward enemy so closely 
together that branches form a barrier. 

Live abatis made by interlacing and tying easily bent saplinga and 
lower branches of adjacent trees so that barrier is formed. Gan be 
made Invisible to both ground and air observation. 

Figure 170.— Abatis. 



■ 102. Underwater Obstacles. — a. Where beach or river line 
has steeply sloping bottom, use — 

(1) Small, sensitive contact mines. 

<2) Heavy logs anchored or tied to shore to form booms. 

<3) Heavy cables or chains stretched between piling. 

(4) All adjusted so as to be under water but close to surface. 



247 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



b. Where beach or river line has gradually sloping bottom, 
use those listed in a above and, in addition, use wire entangle- 
ments securely anchored to bottom. 

c. Where water level changes considerably, both types may 
have to be used. 





Figure 171.— Lobstor pot obstacle. 




A and B — Standard types of entanglements and obstacles con- 
structed during low water and securely anchored. 
Railroad Iron may be driven in sand beach where 
heavy surf occurs. 

C and D — Lobster pots, chevaux-de-frlse, concertinas, etc.. con- 
structed on shore, sunlc In place, and plcketted or 
anchored to bottom. 

E and P— Small, sensitive contact mines or log booms. 

Figure 172. — Typical underwater obstacles on a gradually sloping 



248 



REFERENCE DATA 



103-104 



■ 103. Types of Shelters and Protection Afforded. — a, 

*1) Shrapnelproof or splinterproof. — -Proof against shrapnel, 
machine-gun bullets, and small splinters but not against light 
artillery or 37-mm gunfire. Will probably afford protection 
against fragments of 500-pound bombs exploding at distance 
of 50 feet. Such shelters are easily provided. 

(2) Light shellproof, — Proof against shells from guns, 
howitzers, and mortars up to and including 6 -inch (155-mm) . 
Will probably withstand a direct hit of an instantaneous fuzed 
200-pound demolition bomb. They require considerable time 
and special materials for construction. 

(3) Heavy shellproof. — Proof against 8-inch (200-mm) 
shell, against single hits of heavier shells. Will probably 
withstand a direct hit of an instantaneous fuzed 500-pound 
demolition bomb. They require great expenditures of time 
and materials. 

b. Protection in light shellproof and heavy shellproof 
shelters could be materially increased by use of a 2-foot 
burster course and a greater amount of cover. If this is done, 
it is probable that direct hits of delayed action as well as 
instantaneous fuzed bombs of the sizes mentioned could be 
withstood. 

H 104. Hasty Infantry Emplacements, 



Table CII. — Approximate time and labor estimates for hasty toorks 



Work 


N'uni- 
tuir ot 
men 


N'uinlwr of man-hours in- 


Soft 
sol) 


soil 


Hard 
soil 


Comimny command jiost . hasty ... 


2-3 


12 


18 


24 


Company observation post, nasty 




7 


10 


12 


Light 2-nian she 1 Lor in trench , 




7 


10 


12 


Aid station, local, hasty. ... 


2-4 


12 


18 


■M 


Battalion obsor\ation post, hasty. 




10 


15 


20 




8-18 


50 


75 


100 




8-18 


50 


75 


100 







Nora.- For plans see section VU, FM 5-15. 



249 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




-1mm JUnitjrtt *ti* 



Note— Should provide for— 

Firing recess in parapet 5 feet long and 10 to 12 inches deep. 

Box for rifle. 48 by 12 by 8 inches, with gas curtain. 

Box for ammunition, 20 by 20 by 1? inches, with gas curtain. 

Figure 173, — Automatic rifle emplacement 



DETAILS OF EMPLACEMENT 
L 4 ; '~ 



2 pieces 



'■a 



1? 



Note. — When no T-base is available, gun may be fired from sand- 
bag rest by placing pintle on sandbags and anchoring legs wltn 

174.— Detail of T- 



250 



REFERENCE DATA 



104 





104 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




SECTION A A 



Note— May be made from shallow type by deepening that part 
of pit occupied by personnel. Will require 3 man-hours for deep- 
ening and 3 man-hours for revetting Sn soft earth. 

Ftouke 17S, — Open emplacement for heavy machine gun-^standlng 

type. 

252 



REFERENCE DATA 



104 




SECTION 

Note.— Gun platform la wider than In heavy machine-gun em- 
placement because light machine gun has two rear legs. 

Figure 177— Light machine-gun emplacement 



282736°— 41 17 253 




REFERENCE DATA 



104 



r — 




\ 




\ 




v\ 






TO PREVENT 
INTERFERENCE WITH 
SHELL 

3' 

Note.— Requires 150 cubic feet of excavation. Ammunition niches 
to be dug into side of pit. 

Figure 179. — Emplacement for 81-mm mortar. 
H * — H . 




60 cubic feet of excavation. Ammunition niches 
to be dug into side of pit. 

Figure 180.— Emplacement for 60-mm mortar. 



255 



J&nrfJVWff braced to 
(ftrmlittdoeriv 



tttottltiSe Cover 




Jupportj ijtacrd 

h**" / SecfiortAA 





DATA 



104 



Table cm. — Machine-gun emplacement — bill o{ material and work 
data for figure 1S1 



Item 



Emplace- 
ment for 
2 wins 



6 indies in diameter, 8 feet long 

4 inches in diameter, 10 feet long. .. 
Poles, 2-inches in diameter, 8 feet long.. 

Timbers, by 8 inches, 3 feet long 

Boards, 1 by 12inehcs, 2 feetlong 

Stakes, 13 inches long 

T-bases, standard 

Commuted Iron or roofing paper 

Comouflaco material 

Sandbags 



. .square feet. 
do... 



Wire, smooth, No. 10 feet. 

Brush, for revetting stops ...bundles 

Excavation.. _ cubic feet. 



Work: 

Kxeavation, 12 1 



Revetting, roofing, etc., 12 



.hours. 
..do... 



Total, 12 men do. 

Total man-hours _ 

B-liour shifts 12 men 



24 
220 
40 
4 
6 
200 
2 
750 
1,900 
240 
600 
1 

1.500 



10 
14 



24 
288 
3 



Note.— Can be used In connection with existing trenches or In 
Isolated positions, and adapted for caliber .50 or light machine guns. 



257 



■ 105. Light Shellproof Emplacements. 




SECTION A-A" 

U i * * * 1 * ' ' * T i '' " '' '' '* " T T T "' 

Ficuke 182.— Light shellproof machine-gun emplacement (sectional 
plan and elevation). 

NOTES (flg. 182) 

Mix: 1:2:3 by volume. 

Water cement ratio; (6>i gallons per sack approx.) . 90 by volume. 

All reinforcement is ^-inch steel bars spaced 8 inches c. to c. in 
squares welded or wired together: welding preferred. Outside grids 
to be placed 6 inches from surface: inside grids 4 inches from surface. 

Ties consist of 4 strands of a m- inch iron wire between two surface 
grids with average spacing of 1 foot 4 Inches in both directions and 
booked or welded stirrups of %-inch bars between Inner front anc 



258 




rear surface grids with average spacing 3 feet horizontally and 
8 Inches vertically. 

Concrete faces not protected by earth or bursting courses may be 
faced with l fa to I -inch steel phites If attack by infantry weapons 
at close range is anticipated. 

259 



105 



CORPS OF 



Table CIV. Light shell-proof machine-gun emplacement—bill 
material and work data for figure 182 



Item 



Cement harrelsi 

Sand - — cubic yards. 

Broken stone or (travel (for cement) _ do__ 



I-beams , fi-inch , 9 f ee t ft i nch es long pieces . 

Hound iron bars for reinforcing grids H-hich .linear feet. 

Iron w ire for s tlrni ps, 95 f inch d _ _ 

Angles for embrasure corner armor do— 

3 each 4 by 4 by Mis Inch by 8 feet 4 Inches. 

1 each 4 by 4 by His inch by S feet 8 Inclies. 

2 each 4 by 4 by 9i a incb by 2 feet inches. 
2 each 4 by 4 by 9i a inch by 1 foot 7 inches. 

Wire mesh. ?i-inch for ceiling and walls square feet.. 

Knibrasure panels, complete, consisting of— - 

larmorslecl plate 1 inch by 3 feci a inches by 5 feet 
inches. 

1 armor steel plate 2 inches by 2 feet 10 inches by 7 feeet. 
1 armor plate door 3 feet 2>,i inches by 1 foot 2H inches by 
4 Indies thick, With hinges, door clamp assembly, and 
port cover assembly, 
8 angles 2 by 2 by inch by 0^ inches long. 
Steel door for port complete, consisting of— 

1 steel plate 2 feet a inches by 8 feet by 1 inch thick. 

2 angles 2 by 2 by H inch by 5 feet 6 inches. 
2 angles 2 by % by % ir.ch by 2 feet. 

1 port cover assembly and cap. 

2hlnges4by8by^inchthiek. 

1 lock bar 1 \i by M inch by 1 toot 3 inches. 

Door hook, hasp and hook, hinge bolts. 
Cover for periscope hole, complete, consisting of— 

1 plate 11 by 1 1 indies by lyi inches thick. 

1 plate U by 1 1 inches by inch tnlok. 

1 round rod ?i inch by 3 feet long. 

Sandbags 

Broken stone for burster c 



square yards. 



For forms: 

2-inch 

2 by 6 Inch 

2 by 4 inch 

2 by 2 inch 



.square feel. 
..linear feet_ 



— do — 
— do 



( 1 1 n Tl t it IT 


Weight 
(tons) 


LIU 




43 


S3 


64.5 


88 


3, 8tX) 


"ill 

ID 


(approxi- 




mately) 




24 


L7 


8, 900 


8.8 


1,800 


.08 


32 


.25 


2S3 


.20 


1 


1,8 



! Approximately 4 cubic feet cement per liarrel. 

260 



174 

110 



V". 
700 
330 
36 




105 



Tael 



SEBfl ] 



Ceme 
Sami 
Bruki 
Wate; 



I-bea 
Roun 
Iron \ 
Angle 



Wire 
Embi 



Steel 




























m 

























CdTO 



Bud 
Brok 
Lum 



i A 




REFERENCE DATA 105 



Table CIV — Light shellproof machine-gun emplacement — Bill of 
material and work date for figure IBS— Continued 





Quantity 


Weight 
(tons) 


Lu in ber— Continued . 

X Oi lurnis v_ inn uiuuu. 
1 hi? riinrh 

lUyo IIIIM - . . — - 

1 |~r v A iilch jiriTir-rt- nil ii'i '««!»■ it ■■•a 
For Irfixid mount: 

i liir 1 1 


linftar feet 
do 

do 

do 

—do.... 


to 

40 
40 

22 
37 






do.... 


31 






do.... 


800 




Nails: 




00 




Twentypenny 

Total weight (approximately) 

Excavation: 


do— - 


60 


3152 


cubic yards.. 


a 




do.... 


40 






do.... 


83 






do.... 


120 




Work: 


man-hours. _ 


iSAJ 




Erecting forms, placing burster course, etc. . - do. . . . 

Concrete, placing reinforcing, mixing, placing. an<i sirip- 


350 
450 




Total, S hour shirts, 20 men 

Period for hardening (minimum): 

Portland cemcn t.._ . ..... 


days.. 


1, 120 
7 

M 





261 



106-107 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

■ 106. Estimates for Infantry Emplacements. 



Table CV. — Time and labor estimates for emplacements using 
pioneer tools 



Designation of emplacement 


Excava- 

01] [TOO 

(cubic feel) 


Man- 
hours 1 
(approx.) 


Figure 
reference 


Remarks 


Automatic-rifle em placement 


37 


11-4 to 4 


173 




Machine-gun emplacement. 










type: 










Light shallow 


IS 


Mtol 


177 




T i-irJii at a Hit i n cr 




S to 10 


177 




Heavy sh allow . . - 


w 


3to7 


17S 




Heavy standing. 


120 


» 7 to 13 


Ho- 




Caliber .SO, shallow 


78 


m to 9 


ns 




Caliber -SO, standing- 


150 


9 to 18 


17G 




Splinter-proof, double em- 














2S8 


I SI 


Material at 








site. 


Reinforced concrete 




1,120 


182 


Do. 


37-mm antitank (run cm place- 




ment. 


ITS to 200 


10 to 24 


178 






150 


9 to 18 


17B 






60 


3 to 7 


180 





i First figure is for soft earth, tho second for bard earth. 
1 Does not include revetments. 



■ 107. Artillery Emplacements. 




Ftgtjke 187. — 75-mm gun in sunken position. 
264 



reference data 



107 



A Gradual, decrease 

slope, of ba ^^^^T^^Kfn[yj^ 

FTgttee 188.— 75-mm gun in bank along edge or road. 



/Sppnx.^-O' 




Piccwe 18B —Emplacement lor 75-mm gun (French, high-speed 
rubber-tired wheels). 



265 



Embrasure T^gg^ 




Pigtjhe 190— 155-mm howitzer in tank along edge of road. 




PrctiRE 191 — Emplacement for 155-mm howitzer, MI918 
(high speed). 

266 



REFERENCE DATA 



107 




by^uy wires 
Figure 192 — 155-mm howitzer in bank at edge of woods along road. 




Sechon Jl-D 

Piouhe 193— Emplacement for 155-mm gun (G. P, F.) . 
267 




7'(T- 



- s'tt-i' n-^tf ktJS. fitf-jjf * 

fi 



! 

V 



SECTION A* 

195. — Platform for 75-mm gun, 
268 



Table CVI.— Bill of material for figure 195 



Description 


Size 


Number 
required 


Posts 


4 inches by 4 inches by 3 feet 


8 




3 Inche3 by 8 inches by 6 feet 8 laches . 


64 


Decking,.. 




30 















t) 

■ — b 


; 








t : 




^^■f3o//s -15 "long / 


■ 


■ 


3"*8'*6 L 7' 


1 ? 


1 

X 
t 

** 






i 
• 


> 




" .] 3'* 8"* 8-7" 


■ 

■ 




8-7' 




/ : <? 


14' 






r- 



Pl&n Section 

Figure 196.— Wheel support lor 155-mm gun (G. P. P.). 



282736"^11 18 269 



108 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 
Tabu: CVII.— Bill of material for figure 196 



Description 



Size 



Number 



C'rossiiLniw 
Runways . , 
Bolts 



3 Inches by 8 inches by s f«?r 7 inches 

14 inches by 14 inches by 14 feet 

inch by 15 inches — - 



g 
2 
12 




Section A-fl 

Note If for 155 -mm gun, cut timbers on a 12 -foot radius. 

Fasten 8- by 16-inch timber 2 feet 10 inches long to spade as shown 
in figure 168. 



Figure 197.— Trail support for 75 -mm gun. 



210 



DATA 



108 




Section RR 

Ficube 198. — Concrete trail support for 155-mm howitzer. 



271 



109 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



■ 109. Protection for Antiaircraft Units. — a. 3 -inch gun; 
37 '-mm automatic cannon; searchlight; director; height 
finder. 




Figure 199,— Protection for 3-lncri sun (antialrcratt ) . 



272 




109 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



TRACKER'S SIGHTS 




Figure 203.— Protection for height finder, gun battery (ramp or 
other means of emplaeing Instrument not shown) . 



b. Protection, of other material-searchlight units.— <1) 
Control station.— Dig circular pit 3% feet In diameter and 4 
feet deep. 

(2) Power plant. — Use natural defilade. When necessary, 
build sandbag parapet to height of plant. 

<3) Sound locator. — Build sandbag parapet to level of bot- 
tom of lowest horn. Slit trench nearby for crew of four men. 

c. Figures 199 to 203, inclusive, show shapes or average out- 
side dimensions for camouflage purposes rather than typical 
emplacements. For details see FM 4-105 to FM 4-160, inclu- 
sive (CAFM) . 



276 



REFERENCE DATA 110 

■ 110. Shelters. 

Tabu: CVTII. — Minimum thickness in feet of overhead cover. 



Siie of project ilo 



Nature of cover 


q 
ii 




















S2 

E"5 


1 


•j. 
u 


j3 

B 


% 


9 


1 


1 


1 
1 




II 


S 
» 


B 
** 




B 


J3 


c 

— 


— 


— 


Reinforced concrete _ 




1.0 


■>. I 


3.4 


s.o 


0,0 




7.0 




Masonry, solid; hriek, stono, 






















1.1 


3.6 


6. 1 


7. 5 


w.o 




11.0 




Lobs, 8-inch minimum ilismeter, 




2.0 


■1 s ! 


B.S 


10.0 


12.0 












:t. 1 


8,4 


11.0 


17.5 










Tampw! or packed earth 


I.I) 

3.0 


7.: 

10.0 


18.0 
24.0 


25.5 
34.0 


37.6 
45.0 






























Cava shelters: 




2.0 


0.0 


8.0 


10.0 


13.0 


14. ( 


17.0 


24.0 






3,1 


8.0 


11.1 


15.0 


20.11 


21. 1) 


27.0 


30.0 


Undisturbed earth 




5.C 


12.0 


17.0 


26.0 


30.0 


32.0 


Hi. ( 


48.0 



















Note.- — Figures to the right of and, below the heavy line are for 
shelters that would normally be constructed by cut -and -cover 
methods; those to the left are normally for surface shelters. The 
dividing line Is not fixed, as the determination of the type depends 
on the location, materials, and the labor and time available. 



277 



110 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



C MOlfr CAftTH HID «HOimt.6fr 

is;*£?' iv most moth 

to' ctiKFotcto conca«f suns. 

Z-o'TAMPtB EABTH OH'":: 

•.•*.*.- . t-O'BBOKCK JIONe *V 



tuisnw tm *.(tr.n>i*etr imot,rM0 

jho<k aosobbikq aismoit 
{iter MPORTAHi) 



CfSTfu&umourta. 

SHOCK ABSOMHWCusmO" 



IT 
10 

JLL 



ri r i i i r i- j f i r m i 
HtlllfOttCH) CONCBtTt 
I I | j I H H I . 



«HM9 CIJUIBliriKO Wrtfc 

1 I ■ j L 



SHO OC AEE P.61 KO Cu 5 HiOn 



; e-Loos wrgtn'ro'otTKtaT OlSTfHoUTIKS tAYtlt 



tmje 

t : o"TAHPr.O WftTH 

^.n-f TOfWSMtLTtft 



IT 



cap 



SHOCK A6SOHBIMO 



SMtNGTH lOgiVAltMT TO 

-<T-o"or kaoc nay vihgim tAMH. 

PHOOF AOAiNST *"SHtlL 

Figure 204. — Diagrammatic section showing name, character, and 
correct manner of placing successive layers of artificial overhead 
cover. 



-0 around Level 



*ff*<?ZffortQIn of Trench 




Sectiorv ' a Election 
Figure 205.— Splinterproof shelters. 

Table CLX.— Bill of material for figure 205 



Hem 




Unit 


Quantity 


Weight 
(pounds) 


Logs, roof 


(t inches diameter by 8 


Each 


13 


1,000 




feet. 








Wire 


N'o. 12 


Linear foot.... 


100 


3 




Standard 


Each 


30 


15 


Total wright-. 








1,018 









278 



REFERENCE DATA 110 




Sect! o iv Elevation 
Figure 206.— Light shelter against 3 -inch shells. 



Table CX— BilZ of material /or figure 206 



Item 




Unit 


Quantity 


Weight 
(pounds) 


Cases, gallery. 


It ranch 


Each 


8 
2 
2 
18 
1 
5 
20 
20 
30 


1,200 

35 
»> 
25 
25 

2,000 
1 
IS 


Batten __ 


1 by 4 by 14 feet. 


Each 


End lumber 


1 5i by 6 by 14 feet 

Standard 

2 by 10 by 4 feet 


Each 


Wedges 


Each.. 


Bafllo board. _ 


Each 


Nnils 




Pound 


li ureters 




Each 


No. 12 


Linear foot 






Each... 


Total weight 








4,291 











279 




3ATA 



110 



„ 1 (sunsrata g 



If 



<)*5J 3iq 
■no) aojtBAB)X3 



j-xl aiiLin[-iLVlv 



wenUs raj snoi 



;aEd 
-TI330 jad saci 



Set: 8 



T 



«* ^ » si 



§1 i 



e 3 



-""Si S 3 " 



« « e? 

s 



: El S 



| 2 SS 



(nam) iipalBQ 



w ■ 


• ■ « 


d a? ■ 










i iH 




« « s 



4 4|il 



I 1 
1 I 



lis I 



Q 



I 



S Si ^ § § s a S £ 



281 



8 
1 



i 

a 



2 

i 



s 



m * 



1U 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Section n 
CAMOUFLAGE 

■ 111. Procedure.— a. Make camouflage effective primarily 
against aerial photographs. 

(1) Hide form and shadow without changing texture or 
color. 

(2) Do not make telltale tracks. 

b. In choosing positions, consider misuion, ease of access, 
natural concealment, defilade, and lay-out. 

(1) Use aerial photographs to aid in selecting positions. 

(2) Look first for natural concealment and cover; second, 
for terrain with a confused pattern; third, for most favorable 
existing routes. 

(3) Plan lay-outs of main position and auxiliaries in detail 
before occupation. 

c. Tie in camouflage with existing features. 

d. Use natural materials wherever practicable. 

(1) Place In natural positions. 

(2) Keep green vegetation fresh. 

e. Use fish nets for quick erection of flat-tops and drapes; 
chicken-wire for permanent flat-tops. Fish net is easy to 
handle but shrinks when wet, expands on drying, and de- 
teriorates with extended use. Chicken wire is stronger and 
more durable than fish net, but is heavier, stiffer, and more 
bulky. 

/. Match colors to surroundings. 

g. Make flat-tops Hat. 

h. Thin out garnishing near edges. 

i. Exaggerate irregularities of outline. 

j. Keep cover as close to the ground as practicable. 
k. Enforce camouflage discipline. 

I, Use aerial photographs to check effectiveness of 
camouflage. 



282 



REFERENCE DATA 



112 



112. Details of Camouflage Work. 



! w F< T i I 

/ i i i l j 



LINES or 



ysj i i 

M I I j l 1 

i I |tOP OFINETUp| j 

J I L_J 1 I ! I L 




CENTEft FOLD 



- BOLL LOOSELY 



INITIAL FOLDS- 



1 



ROLL LOOSELY- 



ill 




flNAL fOLO 



PROCEDURE 

i spread Flat, (a.) and fold tok»bos center, (e. *no c] 

TO FOAM LONG FOLDED STRIP (0.) 
2, BOLL LOOSELY FROM BOTH EHOS, (E.) AND FOLO 
BOLLS TOGETHEB. ( F. ) 

Note.- — The folding procedure permits erecting the net from 
under the supporting frame with minimum disturbance to 
adjacent ground and vegetation. 

Figure 208.— Method of folding fish nets. 





® Extending irregularities with garlands. 
Note— Take care not to obliterate previously existing features. 
Figure 210.— Use of garlands. 



REFERENCE DATA 



112 




PLAN 

C i nt ' ' ' i r ^B TO irni w "^ ™r nr? ^ i T <'' "TW' ''' ' Tl l »" T' T' l' t r ' i'i 
SECTION 

Figure 211. — Use of garnishing. 



287 



112 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




Note.— Stretch strips of chicken wire on supporting frame, plac- 
ing strips side by side without overlap; work through openings be- 
tween strips, placing branches and shrubs through wire, butt ends 
down; hold branches and shrubs upright by guy-wiring butt ends 
three or four ways to chicken wire. 



Figure 212. — Preparation of overhead cover with natural materials. 
(See also fig. 209.) 



REFERENCE DATA 



112 




Note. — Stretch wires overhead at varying heights and in several 
different directions; from the wires, suspend branches by fastening 
them near the tips so they hang vertically. 



Figure 213,— Preparation of overhead cover with natural materials 
(alternate method). 



Table CXII.- — Materials required for fiat~top covers 



Item 


Fish nets, 
3fi by 44 feet 


Chicken wire, 1,000 
square yards 




20 

18 


40 to 100. 
SO to 100. 
0,000 feet. 
5 pounds. 


Wire, smooth, No. 12 or larger 


£00 feet 




H [wuad 





289 



© Pish net used as flat-top (as lor guns In position). Must be 
adjusted with changing weather conditions, be kept taut, and be 
tied In with natural ground features. 




® Fish net used as drape (as to cover trucks, tanks, etc.) . Must, 
be tied In with natural ground features. 



Figuee 214. — Uses of Issue fish nets. 
290 



REFERENCE DATA 



112 




LATERAL SCREENING 




SCREENING IN ECHELON 



Figure 216.— Methods of road screening for roads parallel or oblique 
to front, respectively. 

291 



112 



CORPS OF 



CUTS IN OINASURG TO ALLOW 
WIND TO PASS THROUGH 



Mm? r-r, /A\ 



LOOKING DOWN ROAD 



[FIELD 


ROAD 






I 


(J PLAN 




FIELD | 



SIDE VIEW 




DISTANCE 



BETWEEN 



SCREENS 



EXAMPLE 

K' HORIZONTAL DISTANCE BETWEEN 

r= HEIGHT OF SCREE* MATERIAL 
«:lf::9OO0-9OO OR 900 X = 9000 Y 
ASSUME Y = 2YDS, 900 X= 9000X2 OH 900 X = 16000 

orx:2o(ybs). note: slope of ground or turns 

(N ROAD MUST BE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION. 



Pictjke 216.— Method of road screening for roads perpendicular to 

front. 



REFERENCE DATA 



112 




BRUSH SCREEN 
V ROLLED UP FOR 
' TRANSPORTATION 
TO THE POSITION 

SUPPORTING 
P OSTS -s , 




ELEVATION 
-<S>*<E><!S>'<SO>^-^-- SECTION 
BRUSH SCREEN 




CHICKEN WIRE 
GARNISHED WITH 
OZNABURG STRIPS 



FIgtjre 217— Details of road screens. 
293 



113-114 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



■ 113. Pertinent Data.— a. Garnished nets— load capacity of 
lVz-ton truck. 

25 rolls chicken wire, or 
25 fish nets, 36 by 44 feet, or 
20 fish nets, 45 by 45 feet, or 
40 fish nets, 30 by 30 feet, or 
80 fish nets, 22 by 22 feet, or 
200 fish nets, 12 by 12 feet. 
o. Hood screening. — Materials required for 1 mile of lateral 
screen 12 feet high; 

360 2-inch poles, 12 to 15 feet long, 
750 stakes, 3 feet by 3 inches. 
30,000 feet smooth wire, No. 9-No. 16. 
y A keg staples or nails. 
1,800 yards fabricated brush rolls, 12 feet wide, or 
7,200 yards oznaburg, 40 inches wide, or 
3,600 yards chicken wire camouflage, 6 feet wide. 

■ 114. Roads and Paths. — a. General. — (1) Do not camou- 
flage existing roads and paths; disguise their use by prevent- 
ing changes in original appearance. 

(2) Camouflage new roads and paths for shortest possible 
distances only, 

(a) Locate new paths and roads to take full advantage 
of natural cover, concealment, and of existing shadows. 

(&) Place camouflage material overhead on frame of 
chicken wire or stretched wires in irregular, broken patches 
(not in a solid blanket) , (See figs. 213 and 218.) 

&. Access routes to camouflaged position. — (1) Use existing 
roads and paths whenever practicable. 

(2) Wire-in roads and paths and post guards thereon to — 
(a) Confine traffic to routes planned in lay-out of position. 
(&) Prevent widening or making of turn-arounds at or near 

position, 

(3) Choose routes extending beyond position to logical 
destination, such as house or dummy position; make traffic 
go past position to such destination, (See fig. 218.) Use com- 
plete loops where possible. 



294 



REFERENCE DATA 



114- 





CAMOUFLAGED PATH 



Fiotms 218.— Camouflage of paths and roads. 
295 



115-118 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



■ 115 Railways. — a. In general, attempt to camouflage new 
or temporary lines, spurs, short lengths of track, and small 
installations only (camouflage of main lines, yards, depots, 
etc., generally requires excessive amounts of labor and 
materials) , 

b. Use methods applicable to roads and paths. 

■ 116. Telephone and Telegraph Lines. — a. General. — Locate 
lines along existing paths or roads (so that paths made by 
vehicles and personnel will not show). 

b. Pole lines. — (1) Site poles so that shadows are broken 
up by nearby trees, bushes, buildings, etc. 

(2) Paint poles (especially their tops) with dark green or 
fiat black paint. 

(3) Conceal all spoil; cover temporary excavations. 

c. Buried lines. — Site under cover of bushes, trees, etc.; 
resod backfill; conceal excess spoil. 

■ 117. Bivouacs. — a. Site bivouacs in woods, broken ground, 
or villages rather than in open terrain. 

6. In average woods, place tents irregularly and cover with 
brush, grass, or other vegetation. 

c. In thin woods, use overhead cover on wire frames to 
supplement existing natural cover. 

d. In broken ground or villages, tie tents into existing 
buildings, basements, walls, ruins, fences, hedges, etc., using 
paint, mud, or vegetation to disguise the tents. 

e. In the open, use standard wire frames for overhead cover 
of natural or artificial material; allow 5 square yards of 
cover per man; make edges of cover coincide with natural 
ground lines, such as edge of road or field. 

■ 118. Buildings. — a. In general, attempt to camouflage only 
small buildings. 

b. Locate buildings irregularly, under cover of woods if 
possible. 

c. Use flat roofs rather than peaked roofs. 

d. Paint roofs, made of new lumber or of metal, with flat 
paint or daub them with tar or mud. 

e. Cover roofs with irregular patches of brush or other 
vegetation, allowing some brush to extend beyond edges of 
roofs. 

296 



REFERENCE DATA 



118-122 



/. Place bushes or brush on ground, extending outlines of 
building irregularly. 

■ 119. Dumps. — a. Scatter buildings and piles of supplies ir- 
regularly, locating them in and around natural cover over 
large areas, 

b. Use standard camouflage methods and materials for pro- 
viding or improving overhead cover. 

c. Do not locate large dumps near landmarks easily recog- 
nized from the air. 

d. Locate small forward-area dumps in villages or under 
natural cover; do not locate them near prominent cross- 
roads, lone buildings, or other landmarks. 

e. Apply procedures given in paragraph 114 to roads and 
paths. 

■ 120. Trucks and Tanks. — a. Run trucks and tanks under 
natural cover when practicable, 

b. Park in scattered, irregular formations. 

c. In open or semiopen country, cover with brush, weeds, 
etc., or with garnished fish nets (see fig. 214 ©), 

d. Camouflage or efface new tracks made in driving to 
concealed parking areas. 

e. Paint vehicles in flat, neutral color (olive drab, for ex- 
ample) ; cover or put mud on brilliant parts (such as wind- 
shield, head lights) when exposed to light. 

■ 121. Observation Posts. — a. Locate observation post in 
existing structure or object (for example, in trench or cellar) , 
or locate it under ground in side of hill. 

b, Make loopholes irregular in shape; locate them so light 
will not shine through ; provide curtains for background and 
closing when not in use. 

c. Apply general procedures as to artificial cover, disci- 
pline, paths, and roads. 

■ 122. Machine Guns. — a. In trenches, cover V-shaped em- 
brasure in parapet, or slope shoulders thereof to eliminate 
shadows. Cover or otherwise camouflage connecting 
trenches or paths. 

b. In the open, take advantage of existing cover; when this 
is inadequate — 

(1) Use artificial cover as shown in figure 219, or 

297 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




BURIED IN ROAD EMBANKMENT 
JIguhe 219.— Camouflage applied to machine -gun em place ments. 



(2) Use standard 12 by 12 foot fish net as flat-tap or 
drape. Reduce height of net by digging In the gun, and 
conceal elsewhere all spoil which cannot be covered by the 
same net, 

298 



REFERENCE DATA 



123-125 



■ 123. Infantry Mortars — When existing cover is inade- 
quate, use standard 12- by 12 -foot fish nets as flat-tops or 
drapes; arrange cover so that it may be rolled back to permit 
firing; reduce height of cover by digging in mortar; conceal 
spoil. 

■ 124. Antitank Guns (37-mm) .—When existing cover is 
inadequate, use standard 22- by 22-foot fish net as fiat-top or 
drape, arranged so that the gun can be moved into or out of 
firing position quickly. 

■ 125. Field Artillery Batteries. — a. When practicable, 
locate batteries under cover of woods. 

(1) Avoid positions necessitating clearing for field of Are; 
look for natural openings. 

(2) Edge of -woods is usually a good position (see fig. 220) . 
6. In open terrain, use overhead covers on wire frames, 

blending them with natural features (clumps of brush and 
weeds, hedge lines, ditches, scattered trees, etc.) , 

(1) In most cases, guns must be placed under individual 
36- by 44-foot fish net fiat-tops, scattered irregularly to fit 
terrain. 

(2) When terrain permits, a battery may be placed under 
a single, chicken wire flat-top. (See flg. 222). 

(a) Advantages.— Intrabattery paths are concealed; con- 
trol is facilitated. 

(b) Disadvantages. — Requires more labor and materials; 
forms a better target if discovered by enemy. 

c. When in or near villages, buildings, etc., use debris and 
similar material to break form and shadow of gun and pit. 

d. Provide embrasures which can be opened and closed. 
(See flg. 221.) 

e. Reduce height of covers by digging in guns. 

Conceal blast marks in growing fields by covering with 
vegetation; in plowed fields, by spading. (No blast marks 
occur over roads or very hard ground.) 

g. Keep as few men as possible at guns; keep other person- 
nel under cover in rear, 

ft. Paint guns and accompanying vehicles in a flat, neutral 
color which blends with surrounding vegetation. Cover pol- 
ished bright and glass surfaces or cover with mud film. 

299 




REFERENCE DATA 



125 



OVERHEAD EMBRASURES 




SLIT TYPE 



ROLL TYPE. 



FOR FIRING THROUGH HEDGES, ETC. 




MSRASURE *Z { 

V-— •' /'x I 

FLOWEO FIELD V I 1 

y — 

COUNTERWEIGHT TYPE 8RUSH HURDLES 

Figwbe 221. — Camouflage applied to artillery embrasures. 



282736" 




DATA 



126-128 



■ 126, Antiaircraft Batteries. — a. Provide for 360° traverse 
and for elevation from horizontal to vertical. 

b. Use standard 36- by 44-foot fish nets or other standard 
materials to erect cover at trunnion height, allowing gun barrel 
to extend through; paint gun barrel so as to match cover; 
dig in outriggers and remove platforms. (See fig. 223.) 

c. Conceal power plant in natural cover; where no cover 
exists, use small flat-top; bury cables or lay them along paths, 
in high grass, shrubs, bushes, etc. 




Piouss 223.— Camouflage applied to antiaircraft gun. 



■ 127. Railway Artillery. — a. Do not attempt to conceal 
entire positions or great lengths of track, 

b. Provide several positions, which can be quickly occupied. 

c. Cover each position sufficiently to make doubtful whether 
or not it is occupied. 

d. Make artillery equipment resemble ordinary railway 
equipment. 

■ 128. Airdromes and Airplanes. — a. Plant landing fields 
with different grasses so as to create impression that normal 
lines of adjacent areas continue across landing field, 

6. Space hangars irregularly, taking advantage of natural 
cover; improve natural cover by use of standard materials 
and methods. 

c. Consider constructing hangars underground with con- 
cealed entrances (offers high protection, but requires great 
amounts of labor, time, materials; provides physical protec- 
tion as well as concealment) . 

d, Disperse parked airplanes; run them tailfirst under 
cover; improve natural cover by use of standard materials 
and methods. 



303 




REFERENCE DATA 129 

Section III. 

EXPLOSIVES AND DEMOLITIONS 

■ 129. Characteristics and Properties op Military Explo- 
sives and Fuses. 



Table CXIII. — Properties of military explosives 



Explosive 


Relative 
si rei ifth 

Wei pint) 


Detonation by — 


TNT 


1.00 


Issue special tetryl cap. 

No. 8 commercial blasting cap. 


Nltrostarch 


.90 


Dynamite, ammonia (extra), 


.90 


Do. 


60 percent. 
Dynamite, gelatin, 80 percent. 
Dynamite, straight, SOpeiccat. 

Guncotton, dry 

Guncotton, wet 

Picric acid 


.90 
1.00 
2.10 

1.20 
1.20 
1.06 


Do. 

No. 8 to No. 8 commercial blasting can- 
No. 8 commercial blasting cap (large 

charges must be primed) . 
No. to No. 8 commercial blasting cap. 
Primer of guncotton, dry. 
No, 7 commercial blasting cap (small 

charge). 

No, 8 commercial blasting cap (large 
charge). 


Dynamite, ammonia nitrate.. 
Ammonal 


1. 20 
1.05 


Do. 
Do. 


Gunpowder 


..13 


Flame. 



Table CXTV,— Characteristics of issue fuses 



Type 


Iileti titled 
by— 


Rate of 
hurtling 
in test 
1« Tsi-e- 
ond 

(npprox;. 


Form of 


Use 


To ignite 


Fuse, blasting, 


White, 


0.03 (32- 


SO - foot 


To fire nonelec- 


tjje match, 


thmi. 


smooth sur- 


40 scc- 


rolls. 


tric caps. To 


fuss lighter, 




fai v. 


o n d s 




ignlto instan- 


etc 






per 




taneous luse. 








foot). 




To ignite 












blasting pow- 












der. 




Fuse, blast- 


lied braid, 


120 


...do... 


To fire nonelec- 


Splice with 


ing, instan- 


rough sur- 






tric caps. 


time luse; 


taneous. 


face. 








ignite latter. 


Cord, detonate 


Y o 1 1 o w . 


20,000... 


100 - foot 


To induce deto- 


Use issiio de- 


ing PETN, 


rough sur- 




rolls. 


nation in high 


tonating 




face. 






explosives In- 


cap. 










timately adja- 












Ci;tlt. 





305 



129-130 



CORPS OF 



Tabi^ CXV. — Maximum distances for obtaining tndvacd detonation 
of cap in air (open end of cap directed at charge) 



Initial charge 


Distance 
(inches) 


Initial charge 


instance 
(inch.-?) 


1 block TNT 


24 

sa 

48 


5 blocks TNT _. 

<l blocks TNT 


50 
72 
M 




4 blocks TNT 


8 Mocks TNT , 





■ 130. Electric Firing. — a. Electrical constants. — (1) Cap, 
including 12-foot lead wires: resistance 1.5 ohms; current re- 
quired 1.0 ampere. 

(2) Lead wire, 500 feet of No. 18 (B. & S.) double con- 
ductor: resistance usually less than 7 ohms. 

(3) Exploders: 10- and 30-cap capacity. 

(4) Batteries, dry and wet, in good condition : internal re- 
sistance usually under Yz ohm per cell. 

(5) Ohm's law: E — IR (Voltage — current times 
resistance) . 

&. Locating and repairing break hi wire circuit. — See figure 
225. 

(1) Secure connecting wire JV to end connection O; hold wire 
N against binding post L; connect binding post O to joint C. 

(2) If galvanometer shows satisfactory circuit, break is in 
lead wires. 

(3) If galvanometer fails to show satisfactory circuit, con- 
nect binding post O successively to joints H, G, F, etc., until 
satisfactory circuit is shown. 

(4) Break is between last joint showing unsatisfactory cir- 
cuit and first joint showing satisfactory circuit. 

(5) If break is above tamping, repair it; if below tamping, 
handle as misfire. 



REFERENCE DATA 



130-131 



3 





4- 





4 



X 




Fiotjre 225.— Testing el wire circuit. 



I 131. Demolition of Timber.— a. Formulas for circular cross 
sections. 

(1) External charge: 



20 
n » 

(2) Internal charge: W = — 
In 

where 

W = number y 2 -pound blocks TNT required. 

D = diameter of cross section in Inches. 

b. Rules of thumb for all types of cross sections. — (1) Ex- 
ternal charge.— Use eight Va-pound blocks TNT per square 
foot of cross section. 

(2) Internal charge— Use one and a half % -pound blocks 
TNT per square foot of cross section. 



307 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Table CXVI.— Values of D- in. timber demolition formula 



Circum- 

fiTrncv 
\u j i i is aj 




Cirt*um- 
(leicI ii ^ ) 


J3 1 


Circum- 

flTL'ftl l 1 




3. 14 


1.0 


20.42 


42 25 


37.70 


144.0 


4. 71 


2.25 


21.00 


49.0 


39. 27 


13ft 25 


6,23 


4.0 


23.56 


56.25 


40. 84 


1159,0 


7.8S 


6.25 


25.13 


64.0 


42 41 


1S2 25 


9.42 


9.0 


26.70 


72. 23 


43.98 


196,0 


10.99 


12.25 


28,27 


81.0 


45. 55 


211), 25 


12.66 


16.0 


29,84 


90.25 


47.12 


225.0 


14.13 


20. 25 


31.42 


100.0 


62.83 


400 


16.70 


33.0 


3290 


110.25 


78.54 


025 


17.27 


30. 25 


34.56 


121.0 


94.25 


900 


18.85 


30.0 


36. 11 


132 25 











Examples of demolition of timber. 




liloiKs »vt broken up 
to fill bore hole. 

Pigtjhe 226.— Use of TNT in telling trees. 




CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




DATA 



■ 132. Demolition of Steel Members. — a. Formula. 

N=%A 

where 

JV=number J / 2 -pound blocks of TNT required. 
A=area in square inches of cross section to be cut. 

b. Examples. 

1i$htetted byRack&ick 





A ' 12'* O.JS- '* 40* 

Total A 'MS* 
N id * i*3.Z6<** 634 blocks 
Charge 7 blocks TNT 

Figtibe 229.— Demolition ot steel I-beam. 



311 



132 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



(TIGHTENED BY RACK STICK 

-0.625 




A=2*256 =5,12 3Q IN 
N* 3 /4A-V4x(5.l2)-3.64 BLOCKS 
CHARGE 4 BLOCKS TNT 




A*(I6,5'!i2")ii4"132.0 SO IN 
35"x2 =70 SQ IN 
TOTAL A = 202.O SO IN 
N . 3/4 A= 3 /4 it 202= 151.5 BLOCKS 

CHARGE- 152 BLOCKS TNT 

Figure 230,— Demolition of steel built-up girders. 



TIGHTENED BY RACK ST 




• BBSS 3 
a 24.00° 
■ ITgi 3 

N . j* . |* IS0.I5 B * 9T.6 BLOCKS 
CHARGE 90 BLOCKS TNT 

231.— Demolition of steel built-up girder. 



312 



REFERENCE DATA 



132-133 



c. Points to be observed,— <1 ) Blocks should be in contact 
with each other, 

(2) Place largest portion of charge nearest area of great- 
est cross section. 

(3) If form of member is such that charge must be dis- 
tributed on opposite sides, opposing portions should be offset. 

(4) If blocks are in intimate contact with section, and if 
tamped with moist clay charge may be reduced by 50 percent. 

■ 133. Demolition of Railways. — a. One or two blocks of 
TNT tamped with loose earth or sandbags will break railroad 
rails. If two charges are used to cut a section of rail, place 
them on opposite sides of rail, offset about 2 feet. 
5. Overturn section of line by manpower. 

c. Remove joint bars at one end; pull up section of track, 
with locomotive. 

d. Heat and twist loose rails; burn ties. 

e. Cut rails with explosives. 

/. Use detail of 8 men. and push car: 2 men push car; 
2 men on car prepare (fuse) blocks of TNT, hand them to 
2 men following car; latter 2 men place and tamp charges; 
2 men following car at 250 yards detonate charges. 

g. To block tunnel : use explosives or arrange head-on col- 
lision of rolling stock within tunnel. 

ft. To demolish rolling stock: destroy same parts on all 
items of equipment; 2 blocks TNT break reverse lever or side 
rod; 3 blocks break a cylinder; 3 blocks placed near bearing 
spring break driver; 3 blocks break boiler; 3 blocks placed in 
bottom ol tank break tender. 



313 



133-134 corps of 

5 Blocks TNT 




51 



n 



a 



d 



Use of explosive on switch points. 



10 Blocks TNT 




Uee of explosive on frogs. 

5 blocks TNT 




Use of explosive on crossings. 
Figure 232. — Examples of railway demolitions, 

■ 134. Demolition by Breaching (rock, plain concrete, brick, 

masonry). — a. Formulas. 

N=R 3 KC+25 percent (charges under 100 blocks) , or 
N=R ! 'KC+10 percent (charges over 100 blocks) 

where 

N— number of Vz -pound blocks of TNT required. 

/t=radius of rupture (in feet) : depth to which disintegra- 
tion is desired, measured from center of surface of 
contact between charge and material to be destroyed. 
(See fig. 235,) 

314 



REFERENCE DATA 134 

K=a factor dependent upon material blasted, (See table 
CXVU.) 

C=a factor dependent upon location and tamping of 
charge. (See fig. 233.) 



Table CXVU.— Values of K tn breaching formulas 





R 


K 




All values 


0.09 


Ordinary earth - 

Poor masonry, shale anil hard]jan. good timber and earth 


do 


.sa 


oonstru.clie.il. 








Under 3 fcot 


.S3 




3-5 leet 


.50 




5-7 feet 


.44 




Over 7 feet..- 


.38 




Under 3 lect 


.81 




3-5 feet 


. r;s 




5-7 feet. 


.57 




Over 7 (net 


.19 




Under 3 feet 


1.25 


{Concreto only, will Ullt ™ l bars.) 


3-5 feet— 


i.00 




5-7 feet 


.88 







.75 




TAMPEO C- 10 TMIPEO C US TAMPED C - 1.ZS UNTAMPED C 2.5 

UNTAMPED C- 1.4 UMTAMPED C- 1.5 UMTAMPED C-2.0 




TAMPED C-tS TAMPED C 2.0 TAMPED C-2 5 UNTAMPED C 4.5 

UNTAMPED C« 33 

Pigube 233.— Values of C in breaching formulas. 
315 



134 



CORPS OF 



1—8.0 



.a-f N0T E : TO DETERMINE PIVOT POINT 

USER WO K TOGETHER OR 
LS C AND N TOGETHER 

I.Z5 



,.4 

.a 



i.o 

J4. 



, .6-63 



.7- 
.8- 

,»H 

1.0 



^.44 
r.4 
^.38 
SB 



1.25- ; 



< 2.0- 



.65 



■50~, s USE ANY STRAIGHT EDGE 




50-^50,000 
_ -40,000 
Jjp 30,000 

40 

35-^ 
30- 

25- 



20- 



-.3 



1.4- — 25 

1.5- 



25 



PIVOT STRAIGHT EDGE WHERE 



S 25 _- < GIVEN 

UJ R = 6 FEET. 



O- 

s -_- 

1- 3.0 



3.5- 



2 a tT CROSSES INDEX LINE. 

§ EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATED Br 
£ DOTTED LINES: 



K*.57 
R = 6 FE 
C= 1.5 

FIND N = 203 BLOCKS 



— .03 



4.0- _ 

4.5- 



t.n.t 



£0,000 
15,000 

10,000 



• 5,000 

■ 4,000 

■ 3,000 



7 



_ |- 2,000 
1,500 

^ 1,000 

-E 

-^-500-: 
10 — 400t- 

300 tf> 

-I a 

=-20og 

ISO <» 



B 
p 



to 



a: 3— E 
11 

oc 



2=L 



SO < 
-40 ^ 

-30 O 

or 

— 20 y 



10 



—5 



Fictjbe 234. — Solution of breaching 

(added percent is included in 



316 



R1FEBENCE DATA 



134 





Figure 235.— Methods of placing charges In demolition of reinforced 
concrete span. 



b. Points to be observed (breaching of reinforced con- 
crete). — (1) To demolish concrete parts only, use standard 
breaching formula. 

(2) To demolish concrete and reinforcing steel — 
(a) By two-pfia&e method. — Demolish concrete, using 
breaching formula; then cut individual reinforcing bars, 
using formula: 

N=2A 

where 

W=number V 2 -pound blocks TNT. 

A = area in square inches of cross section of steel to be cut. 

(t» By one-phase method (to be used oniy when two- phase 
method is not practicable) .—Use breaching formula, increas- 
ing charges by from 20 to 40 times. 



282736-^1 21 317 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



135-136 



■ 135. Demolition by Distributed Breaching Charges— a. 
Formula. 

N=3.2K'KC 

where 

JV=number of M> -pound blocks of TNT per yard. 
R, K, and C have same significance as in breaching 
formulas. 

b. Points to be observed. — (1) Demolition by distributed 
charges usually requires more explosives than demolition by 
concentrated charges; use former method only for thin struc- 
tures. 

(2) Place charges in continuous row. extending along 
structure to be demolished. 

(3) For reinforced concrete, take 11=1.25 times thickness 
of structure. 

■ 136, Crater ing. — a. Formula. 

N=L'Z+ % 

where 

N= number of V. -pound blocks of TNT required. 
L=depth to top of charge in feet. 

Z=a factor depending on nature of soil (see table CXVUIl 
and on line of crater. 



Table CXVTII, — Values of Z in crater formula 



Kind of material 


CamoU' 

net 

Hine 


Utldcr- 
clmrecd 
1^-line 


Mine 


3-1 me 


4-line 


5-linc 


0-line 


L.lf?ht earth 


o, oio 


0.024 


0.O54 


0. 102 


0.36 


0. 70 


1.23 


Common earth 


.012 


.030 


.066 


.188 


.44 


.80 


1.31 




.014 


.038 


.084 


.252 


.50 


1. 10 


1 03 




.018 


.046 


.HHP 


.300 


.67 


1.30 


2.2a 



Note. — Charges under 50 blocks, add 100 percent; 50 to 200 blocks, 
add 50 percent; 200 to 500 blocks, add 25 percent; over 500 blocks, 
add 10 percent. 



318 



REFERENCE DATA 136 



Table CXtX — Values which multiplied by L give radii of rupture 



Radius of rupture 


Lino of crater 


1-Iino 


1H-Ilne 


2-line 


3-line 


4-line 


Mine 


6-line 


Horizontal..... 

Vertical 


1.0 
1.0 


1.4 
1,1 


1.7 
1.2 


2.4 
1.4 


3.1 
1.7 


3.9 
2,1 


4.7 
2.0 



Table CXX. — Depths of craters in common earth for depth of 
Cliarge L 



Line oJ crater 


Depth 


Line of crater 


Depth 


Mine 


1/3 L. 
2/3 L. 
L. 


6-line. 


4/3 L. 
5/3 L. 











319 



L 



| 

gj I 

r 



1 1 
■ i 



EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATED BYOOTTEO LINES 

GIVEN. L» 10 FEET 
K1HAR0P4N 
Ci 2-UNE 

FIND IM IM BLOCKS 

T. N.T. 



PIVOT STMIOHT ( 
IT I 



C£9T OLD BUCK *OIW 




Ei roc 

POIKT IBE L MI K 
ICKTHM Ml m N 



150 :", 

« -I E" " 
11 • : 



* » 



4,000 



400 

300 



too 

IM H 



- JO g 

£ 

- io i 

S 



Ftgtjre 236. — Solution of crater formula: 

W=Z,'Z-( percent (added percent Is 

i Included In results) . 



REFERENCE DATA 



136 



b. JJoetd craters. — (1) Locate in embankments, cuts, fills, 
causeways, crossroads, or in villages. 
(2) Mood, if possible. 

(33 For charges placed in culverts, tamp thoroughly for 
distance at least equal to horizontal radius of rupture, 

(4) If material falling back can be removed, use a l'/a or 2 
lined crater; if not, use a 4 lined crater. 

(5) Two or more adjacent charges often will give more 
effective results (especially for hasty AT obstacles) than the 
same amount of explosive in one charge which is harder to 
place. 



zo Ft.- 




Note. — Charge : N=L*xZ + - percent 

1 3 x . 10 • I ■ ■ percent =-100 i-50 percent 

— 150 blocks TNT 



Figure S3 7. — Road crater, two-lined, to be Improved (nardpaii) . 




Note.— Charge; N=L'xZ-\ percent 

= 5= X .67 H percent == 83.75 -(- 50 percent 

- 126 blocks TNT 



Figtjre 23B.— Road crater, four-lined, unimproved (hardpan). 

321 



137 



CORPS OP ENGINEERS 



■ 137. General Demolitions; Various Objects and Struc- 
tures. — a. Tunnels. — The best points for attack are where the 
tunnel passes through loose materials (destroy lining for 
length of 15 to 25 yards by series of breaching charges). 
Block tunnels by head-on collisions, 

&. Telegraph and telephone lines. — Disable by cutting or 
grounding wires. Destroy completely by burning or demolish- 
ing poles and cutting wires. 

c. Frame buildings .—Demolish by closing doors and win- 
dows and exploding concentrated charge on ground floor 
(about 1 block TNT per cubic yard volume of first floor rooms) . 

d. Wells. — Demolish by breaching charge placed 6 to 12 
feet from well, at depth of 10 to 15 feet; or by charge located 
just outside edge of well and deep enough to insure good 
tamping; or by large charge exploded against the wall, deep 
down in well, 

e. Artillery.— Demolish by— 

(1) Opening breech, setting block TNT against hinge, par- 
tially closing breech, and exploding charge. 

(2) Exploding a well-tamped charge of 5 blocks of TNT 
inside the bore, close to the muzzle (dangerous fragmenta- 
tion) . 

/. High explosive projectiles. — Explode by a charge of several 
blocks of TNT placed against base of fuze. Handle shells 
of 200 pounds or more separately. Gather small shells into 
groups of 200 pounds, place in contact with each other, and 
detonate one shell (the others detonate by induction). Handle 
shells carefully — explode only in a trench at least 6 feet deep. 

g. Wire entanglement. — Use bangalore torpedo or lay chain 
of TNT blocks under wire (results of these methods un- 
certain) . 

h. Stumps.~Use timber formula for cutting, crater formula 
for lifting. 

i. Boulders. — Use internal charges if practicable. 

j. Zones of demolitions. — In average rolling terrain, where 
routes of communications and streams are numerous, as much 
as 1 ton of explosive per square mile may be required to create 
an effective barrier zone. In thickly settled areas, 1.5 tons— 
and more — may be required per square mile. 



322 



REFERENCE DATA 137-138 



Table CXXL— Charges for demolition of boulders 



Diameter of 
boulder Clect) 


Number of Of- hy 8-itieh sticks of 
50 percent dynamite required 


BlocVhnle 


Snakeholc 


Mud cap 


m 


M 


1 


2 


2 


W 


1. 


3 


4 




4 


7 



■ 138. Storage and Handling of Explosives. — a. Location of 
magazines. 



Table CXXTI. — Location of explosives magaziTie 



Explosive 
[pounds} 


Distance in feet from ncarest- 




r»l];it>i!i'<l 
building 


Railway 


Highway 


Other 
rriL.j:iriri" 


50 
100 
2,000 
25.000 

t loo.ooo 


340 
360 
1,200 
2,110 
3,630 


140 

220 
720 
1,270 
2,180 


70 

in 

300 
630 
1,909 


60 
80 
200 
300 
400 



' Maximum permitted In any 1 magaiine. 



b. Precautions in handling. — (1) Do not store or trans- 
port caps or primers with explosives. 

(2) Thaw frozen dynamite slowly, out of direct contact 
with source of heat. 

(3) Use wooden implements only in tamping. 

(4) Handle caps with great care — never carry them in 
pocket. 

(5) Do not connect lead wires until ready to Are; dis- 
connect immediately after firing. 

(6) Keep explosives dry and under lock and key. 

(7) Following a slow fuse misfire, wait 30 minutes; then 
explode charge by another placed within 2 feet of original. 

(8) After an electric cap misfire operate exploder several 
times; disconnect and separate lead wires off ground. In- 
vestigate at once, 

323 



139 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

Section IV 

BARRIERS AND ANTIMECHANIZED DEFENSE 

■ 139. Characteristics of Materiel. 

Table CXXIII. — Classification of obstacles 



Criterion 



Classi float Inn 



General purposes 



Remarks 



Time required 
for erection. 



Distant— 25 miles 
and more be- 
yond main line 
ot resistance. 

Outlying— beyond 
normal ant Hunk 
(AT) gun ratitse 
(TOO yards). 

Close ■ in— within 
normal A T gun 
range. 



Iieararea— on line 
of communica- 
tions. 



Quick. 



Bemlqniofc... 



Deliberate 



Block lino of com- 
munication. 



Impede n 
delay advance. 



Immediate protection 
of M I. K; limit pene- 
tration; immediate 
protection of rear 
positions and instal- 
lations; or to prevent 
escape of median ized 
forces that have pen- 
etrated J>ositions. 

Protect supply route 
and 



Illoek avenues o( ap- 
proaoll on short no- 
tice (matter of min- 
utes). 

Rloek avenues of ap- 
proach on fairly short 
notice (matter of 
hours). 

Block avenues of ap- 
proaeh with rela- 
tively long time 
available. 



Placed by air foi 
or during rail Is. 



Placed by Knjrineers 
or other arms. 



Placed by troops 
protected by the 
obstacle, assisted 
by Engineers. 



Engineers. 



Wire roll, cables, AT 
mines, wroekod ve- 
hicles, gassc d areas . 



M 



fields, demoli- 
tions, abatis, barri- 
cades, craters. 



AT ditches, estan- 
siva demolitions, 
inundations. 



324 



REFERENCE DATA 139 



Table CXXIV. — Typical tank characteristics 



Characteristics 


Light 
timk 


Medium 
tank 






12 
183 


IS 


Length ._ 


inches. 


210 




do... 


12 


13 


Tread (renter to center) 




7:1 


81 




do ... 


15 


17 






43 


48 


Climb vertical bank— 


feet 


3 


6 


Cross ditch without jum pins, width... 


do.... 


8 


10 


Climb short dry slopes (maximum) 


degrees.. 


45 


4i 




...do..._ 


30 


30 







Note,— Light tanks may weigh from 9 to 15 tons, medium tanks 
from 18 to 35 tons, and heavy tanks as much as 50 tons. In 
Europe, tanks weighing 70 to 90 tons have been used In the attack 
of strongly fortified positions. 

Table CXXV.— Characteristics of antimechanized weapons 



Type 



Machine gun, cali- 
ber .50. 

Antitank gun: 

25-mm 

37-mm 

47-mm 



Project ile 
weieht 
(pounds) 



0.107 



.73 
1,85 
3.50 



Mn?.ile 
vclocit y 
(feet jut 
second) 



2, 700 
3,ono 

2,000 



Armor penetration 



at 600 yards 
(inches) 1 



Normal 



0. 55 

1.95 
2.20 
1.90 



30" Im- 
ps ot 



0.40 

1.60 
1.78 
1.45 



Mil*], 
mum rate 
ot fire 
(rounds 

per 
minute) 



600 



170 

30 
20 



> Penetration of armor cannot be counted upon when ancle of impact Is greater 
than 30" from normal. At these larger angles of impact, projectile either ricochets 
or breaks up. 



325 



140 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



■ 140. Mine Fields. — a. Description.— (1) Number of rows 
in band: 3 to 6. 

(2) Distance between rows: 1 to 3 yards, 

(3) Least density: l"/ 2 mines per yard of front. 

(4) Pattern: varied, nongeometric. 

(5) Additional protection: best obtained by additional 
bands rather than by increasing density of existing ones, 

b. Methods of laying. — CI) Longitudinal. — Parties move 
along rows laying one or more rows simultaneously. 

(a) Advantage.— Allows close supervision of work and 
favors use of trucks. 

{&) Disadvantage.— -May leave paths visible from air and 
ground. 

(2) Crossfield. — Parties move across field, laying mines in 
several rows simultaneously. 

(a) Advantage. — Adapted to situation where road parallels 
field and serves as base line. 

(b) Disadvantage.— Not adapted to use of trucks, or to 
accurate laying, especially at night. 

c. Concealment. — (1) Burying. — Effective against all forms 
of observation. Scoop out shallow hole, placing mine at ele- 
vation to insure detonation; replace sod or top soil over 
mine; dispose of spoil, 

(2) Use of terrain. — Effective against air observation and 
to some extent against ground observation. Lay mines along 
natural terrain lines, furrows, old fence lines, roads. 

d. Equipment required for erection. — Trucks for transport- 
ing mines; bags for carrying away spoil; picks; shovels; 
tracing tape; measuring stakes; sledges. 



326 



REFERENCE DATA 



140 




Note. — For shipment the ribbed spider fits on the bottom of the 
mine case, and fuaes are carried separately. When ready for use 
the fuze assembly is inserted and the ribbed spider placed on top 
so that the hooks are clipped under the rim of the mine case. 
Until removed, the safety clip prevents the fuze plunger being 
forced down to fire the mine. This clip can be replaced. A ring 
handle Is attached to the side of the case for carrying purposes. 

Figure 23 B. — Antitank mine. 



327 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



'6'-! 



a -it- ^- *— 

^-3 YDS h6H ▼ V 

$ — — j_ _ . <*, — — — 4—^ - -0 — 4 



I-3YDS v ' (^ 6 M * 
0— $ _ -*F- -0 (|>_ ^ 3L 

— 12' 12' — ■+■ — 12' 12'— 

<) — — q> 0- 

<f) f0— <•> 0- 



12' 




-12'— 

0- 



— IE' — 12' H 

0- 



-O— O 0-0 ©-0 h 

6' 



-0-0 



•0—0-0—0—0—0—0- 0— g)— O — *- 



Piguhe 240.— Antitank mine fields showing typical 3- and 8-row 

patterns. 



REFERENCE DATA 140 



Table CXXVI.— Typical rates of laying mines for various conditions. 



Method of— 


Parly (squads) 


Total 
mines 


Transport 


Placing 


Curr v 

ing 


[,uj iiii: 


[liiry- 

illf" 


laid per 
man- 
lumr 




Unburied 


2 


1 




40 




Buried 


2 


1 


8 


20 


Laying from truck -.- 


U ii bur led 




1 




120 




Burled 




1 


3 


30 



Note. — 8-man squad, carry of 100 yards, medium soil. If trav 
or carrying sticks are used, double carrying rat*. Night work reduces 
all rates by 50 percent. 




F*tgtjee 241.— Two typical patterns for antitank mine road block. 



329 



140-141 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



e. Removal of mines. — Use pointed sticks or rods as probes to 
locate buried mines; determine extent of field; separate mines 
from detonators; be careful of trap mines; use protective 
clothing against persistent gas; consider clearing only lanes 
through field, fencing off dangerous area. Average rate of 
mine removal, daytime, with no gas or enemy interference 
(reduce rates 50 percent for night work) : 

(1) Unburied, — 120 mines per man-hour. 

(2) Buried. — 60 mines per man-hour. 

■ 141. Wihe Rolls. — a. Description. — (1) Class of obstacle: 
quick. 

(2) Effective against wheeled vehicles (entangles Itself 
around wheels, axles, brakes, steering mechanism). 

(3) Diameter of roll: 4 feet. 

(4) Length of roll extended: 40 feet. 

(5) Weight of roll: 40 pounds. 

(6) Number of rolls carried on l!4-ton truck: 75. 

(7) Construction of roll: No. 11 oil tempered wire wound 
in spiral ; adjacent rounds connected by strong clips at 5 points 
around circumference. An issue item — not susceptible of con- 
struction in the field. 

b. Use. — (1) Rolls placed in groups of about 6; long axis of 
rolls at right angles to direction of approach of enemy ve- 
hicles; distance between rolls: 5 to 25 yards. 

(2) Rolls placed just beyond curves and just over crests of 
hills so vehicle encounters them unexpectedly. 

(3) Rolls in place are extended, anchored lightly to ground. 

(4) Effectiveness of rolls increased by strewing with AT 
mines. 

(5) Rate of laying rolls: 2 men place 1 roll in about 1 minute. 



330 



REFERENCE DATA 



141-142 




Figure 242. — Groups of wire roll obstacles placed In a cut for con- 
cealment and surprise. 



■ 142. Abatis.— a. Description, and use.— (1) Class of ob- 
stacle: usually semi quick, 

(2) Effective against wheeled and track vehicles (must be 
heavy and well constructed to be effective against latter). 

(3) Construction: tree or poles felled at angle across road, 
tips toward enemy; trees or poles on opposite sides felled so 
as to interlock; trunks left attached to stumps. 

(4) Trees should be at least 12 inches in diameter. 

(5) Rendered more effective by using trap mines and per- 
sistent gas. 

(6) Rates of construction.— 2 men can fell single trees (10 
to 20 inches in diameter) in from 15 to 45 minutes; road 
abatis 75 yards deep (100 heavy trees) requires 260 man- 
hours. Use of power equipment highly desirable. 



331 





Figure 246.— Sldehlll cut. 



Table CXXVH. — Estimated time to construct 100 feet of antitank 
ditch (8 hrs, to a shift). 



Siieof working parly 
(eicluilitiu super- 
vision) 


Tyi>o of 
soil 


Total time required 


Triangular ditch 


Trapezoid al dllch 


8 feet 
vido 


12 feet 
wide 


'8 feet 
vido 


12 feet 
vido 


32 workers with huml 
tools. 


Light... 


2 hours... 


a) j hours 


1 shift 


1 shift plus 
1H hours. 




Average. 


3 hours. 


hyi hours. 


1 shift plus 
M hours. 


1 shift plus 
6 hours. 


llard._.. 


bH hours. 


i shirt 
plus yi 

Ik.iir, 


2 Shifts 


2 shifts plus 
8H hours. 


VA-tan shovel villi 
2 shovol operators 
and3lol0 finishers. 


Light. 


] ■ j hours 


2 hours.. . 


3 hours 


4 hours. 


Average. 


2> a hours . 


4 hours .. 


7 hours 


1 slii ft plus 
3 hour. 


Hard.... 


t hours... 


5 hours.. 


1 shift plus 
VA hours. 


1 shift plus 
4 hours. 



282736'—*! 22 333 



144-145 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



B 144. Post Obstacles.- — Effective against light tanks. Posts 
are of timber, 10 to 12 inches; railway ties or rails; reinforced 
concrete, etc. First rows slow down tank; other rows stop it. 



o o o o o ©r o 
o o o o 
o o o o 



o o o o o o o 

I" 



o o h±: i — *— 

*' A^- 1 y pi TO tUtlW"** 
.0 

I 



Piguke 247— Typical post obstacle. 
Table CXXVIII .—Rates of construction, of post obstacles 



Method of placement 


Operating crew 


Pointing cupping 
crew 


Rate of 
pin cement 
of posts per 
hour in- 


Soft soil 


L 

8-1 

a 


m 

1 
a 

~ 


I'ik- driver (drop r;r nir 


1 NCQ,8men 


l NCO, 8mea 




4 




hammer) using VH-ton 












mobile crane. 












Power earth auger, hand 


1 NCO, 8 men 




ss 


23 


17 


tarn ping. 












Hand labor._ 






30 


20 







100 workers. 











i Cnsiilisfiiclor) . 

■ 145. Miscellaneous Obstacles. — (For road craters see 
section in,) Logs, ditches, large stones, and log hurdles 
(see figs. 242, 244, and 249) should be placed in one line 
or staggered 8 to 30 feet in front of every obstacle to slow 
down or throw out of control rapidly approaching vehicles. 




335 



145 



corps or 




- 



^W^'to enemy ^ 




ROAD ' 



336 





I 

■4-7 




Lit 



REFERENCE DATA 



146 



■ 146. Chemicals. — a. Description of issue chemical mine. 
(1) Contents of can: 1 gallon. 
<2) Type of gas: persistent, 

(3) Weight of mine : about 10 pounds. 

(4) Method of packing : 6 mines in box crate. 

(5> Method of firing: by bursting charge (special or block 
of TNT) placed directly under and in contact with mine. 

(6> Effects of burst : liquid is thrown 10 yards in air, con- 
taminating area 20 yards or more in diameter. 

(7) Use: strew mines over area, 15 to 20 yards apart. 

(8) For contaminating roads: place row of mines about 
17 yards apart in a row on each side of road. 



Table CXXIX.- — Gcs contamination of roads 



Time 


Number 
of men 


Length 
of road 
(miles) 


Time fuse 
tKtii lion 
(hours) 


Electrical 
itmilion 
(hours) 


Day 


8 
8 


1 
1 


1 

m 


2 
3 


Night 



Note. — A l'/^-ton truckload r.t about 300 mines will contaminate 
1 mile of road. 



b. Decontamination. — (1) Equipment required: gas masks, 
protective clothing, stable brooms, buckets, decontamination 
apparatus. 

(2) Precautions: mark and wire off dangerous areas: 
guard with sentries; work from up- wind side. 

(3) Details: cold water hydrolyzes Lewisite, washes away 
mustard. Earth, sand, ashes, or sawdust (preferably wet) 
spread 3 inches deep forms seal giving temporary protection 
against mustard. 

(4) Agents: use calcium hypochlorite (bleaching powder) 
in solution with water or mixed with soil (1 part powder, 3 
parts soil by weight) ; allow 1 pound pure powder per square 
yard of area to be decontaminated; after using powder-soil 
mixture, spade it in and cover with fresh soil; solution ap- 
plied from buckets, sprinkler cans, or sprayers; to decon- 
taminate metal equipment, use noncorrosive decontaminat- 
ing agent. 

337 



146 



CORPS Or ENGINEERS 



(5) Roads: wash down with water; wash with bleaching 
powder paste; coat with thin layer of sodium silicate (water 
glass) or hot asphalt. Renew coating as required. 

c. Field collective protector. — This equipment, which sup- 
plies dugouts with air from which gases have been filtered, 
has been standardized. The canister and gasoline engine 
blower, both mounted on a base, and a length of flexible hose 
can be transported on a truck. The unit can supply about 
200 cubic feet of purified air per minute. 



338 



CHAPTER 4 
MISCELLANEOUS DATA 

Section I, Mathematical and physical data 339 

II. Data on materials 355 

in. Troop movement data — - 366 

Section I 

MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL DATA 
Table CXXX.— Factors Jor conversion of wnfts 



[To convert A to B, multiply A by C. To convert B to A, multiply B by D] 



Unit A 


Fnctor 


UBitB 


C 


D 


Length: 








M lies . 


1 63,300.0 


0.00001678 


Inches. 




■ 5,280,0 


.0001894 


Feet, 


Do 


1.609 


.6214 


Kilometers. 


Motors .- - 


3. 381 


.3048 


Feet. 


Kilometers 


3,281.0 


.0003048 


Do. 




2.540 


.3037 


Centimeters. 


Eurfseo: 








Square miles 


'27,878,400.0 


,00000003587 


Square feet. 


Do 


i 040.0 


.001563 


Acres. 


Do 


2.60 


.3801 


Square kilometers. 


ACICS- mm h - - 


1 13, 500.0 


.00002290 


Square feet . 


Do 


4,046.9 


.0002471 


Square meters. 


Hectares. __ 


2.471 


.4017 


Acres. 


Do 


i 10,000.0 


'.0001 


Square meters. 


Square inches 


0.452 


.1550 


Square centimeters. 


Square meters. 


10.70 


.09290 


Square feet. 


Volume: 










i 1,728.0 


.0005787 


Cubic Inches. 




16 39 


,06102 


Cubic centimeters. 


Cubic meters 


35.31 


.2832 


Cubic feet. 




7.481 


.1337 


U. S. gallons. 


Do. 


6.229 


.1605 


Imperial gallons. 


Do. — . 


28.32 


.03631 





i Enact vsuues. 



339 



CORPS or ENGINEERS 
Table CXXX.— Factors /or conversion of units — Continued 



trait A 



Volume— CoDti nuefl . 

U. S. gallons.- -. 

Do- 

Imperial gallons 

U. S, bushels. 

Fluid ounces 

Acre- feet 

Millions V. S. gal___ . 
Flow in p water: 

Second -feet r 

Do- - - 

Do 

Cubic feet per minute 

Velocities: 

Miles per hour 

Meters per second — 
Do ■ 



Atmospheres (mean) _ 

Pounds per square 
inch. 

Feet of water 

Weight! 

Pounds 

Kilograms 

Long tons 

Power: 

Horsepower.- 

Kilowatts . 



Factor 



i 231.0 
S.785 
1.200 
1.314 
1.S05 
1 43,560.0 
133,700.0 

1 60.0 
443.8 
1.984 
7.481 



1.467 

3. 281 
2.237 

33 90 
14.70 

28.92 
2.030 

62.42 

» 7,000.0 
2. 205 
•1.120 

'550.0 

1.341 



0. 004320 
.2042 
,8331 
.8030 
.5541 
.00002290 
.000007481 

.01667 

.002228 

.5042 

,1337 



.6318 
.3048 
.4470 



.02950 
.0580 



. 03342 
.4912 



.01602 



.0001429 
.4536 



.001818 
.740 



UnitB 



Cubic inches, 
liters, 

U. S. gallons. 
Cubic feet. 
Cubic inches. 
Cubic feet. 
Do. 

Cubic feet per minute. 
U.S. gallons per minute. 
Aerc-teet per 21 hours. 
U. S. gallons per min- 
ute. 

Sect per second. 
Do. 

Miles per hour. 

Feet of water. 
Pounds per square 

inch. 
Inches of mercury. 
Do. 

Pounds per square foot. 

Grains, 
Pounds. 
Short tons. 

Foot-pounds per sec* 

ond, 
Horsepower* 



'Exact values. 



340 



REFERENCE DATA 



Table CXXXI. — Functions of nunibers 



3 

i 


| 

to 


Cube 


1 

W5 


Logarithm 


Number 


8 

1 


9 

o 

o 


Square root 


Logarithm 


1 


1 


1 


1.0000 


0.00000 


36 


1296 


4665« 


6,0000 


L 55630 


2 


4 


3 


1. 4142 


. 30103 


37 


1369 


50653 


6. 0828 


1, 56820 


3 


9 


27 


1.7321 


.47712 


38 


1441 


64872 


0. 1644 


1.57978 


4 


16 


64 


2,0000 


.60206 


39 


1521 


59319 


6. 2450 


1. 59100 


5 


25 


125 


2,2361 


.69897 


40 


1600 


61000 


6.3246 


L 60206 


6 


36 


216 


2 4495 


. 77815 


41 


1681 


68921 


6. 4031 


1.61278 


7 


49 


343 


2. 6453 


. 84510 


42 


1764 


74088 


6. 4807 


1. 62325 


3 


61 


512 


2 8284 


.90309 


43 


1849 


79507 


6.5574 


L 63347 


9 


SI 


729 


3.0000 


.95121 


44 


1936 


85184 


6.6332 


1. 64345 


10 


ioo 


iooo 


3. 1023 


1.00000 


45 


2025 


91125 


8.7082 


L 65321 


11 


121 


1331 


3. 3166 


1. 01139 


16 


2116 


97336 


6.7823 


L 66276 


12 


144 


1723 


3.4641 


L 07913 




2209 


103323 


6 8557 


1. 67210 


13 


169 


2197 


3.6056 


1. 11394 


48 


2304 


110592 


6.9232 


1.63124 


14 


196 


2744 


3.7417 


1. 14613 


19 


2401 


117649 


7.0000 


1.69020 


15 


225 


3375 


3.8730 


L 17609 


50 


2500 


125000 


7. 0711 


1.69897 


16 


258 


4096 


4.0000 


1.20412 


51 


2001 


132651 


7. 1414 


L 70757 


17 


289 


4913 


4. 1231 


L 23045 


52 


2701 


140603 


7. 2111 


1. 71600 


18 


324 


5832 


4.2426 


1. 25527 


53 


2S09 


143877 


7.2801 


1.72428 


19 


301 


6859 


4. 3539 


1. 27375 


51 


2916 


157434 


7.3485 


L 73239 


20 


400 


8000 


4. 4721 


1.30103 


55 


3025 


166375 


7.4162 


1. 74036 


21 


441 


9261 


4.5326 


1,32222 


56 


3136 


175616 


7.4833 


1. 71819 


22 


484 


10048 


4.6904 


1. 31212 


57 


3249 


185193 


7. 5498 


1. 75587 


23 


529 


12167 


4. 7958 


1.36173 


53 


3364 


195112 


7.6153 


1, 76343 


24 


■576 


13824 


4.8990 


1.38021 


59 


3431 


205379 


7. 6811 


1.77085 


25 


625 


15625 


o.oooo 


1.30791 


60 


3600 


216000 


7.7460 


1. 77815 


26 


676 


17576 


5. 0990 


1.41497 


61 


3721 


226981 


7,8102 


1. 78533 


27 


729 


19683 


6. 1962 


1.43136 


02 


3844 


238328 


7.8740 


1. 79239 


28 


784 


21952 


5. 2915 


1.44716 


83 


3969 


250047 


7, 9373 


1.79934 


29 


841 


24359 


5. 3852 


1. 46240 


64 


4096 


262144 


8.0000 


1.80618 


80 


000 


27000 


5. 4772 


L 47712 


65 


4225 


274625 


8.0623 


1. 81291 


31 


961 


29791 


6. 5678 


1, 19136 


66 


4356 


287496 


3. 1240 


1.81954 


32 


1024 


32768 


5.0569 


1.50515 


67 


4489 


300763 


3. 1854 


1.82607 


33 


1039 


35937 


5. 7446 


1 51351 


68 


1624 


314432 


8.2462 


1.83251 


31 


1156 


39304 


5 8310 


1.53148 


69 


4761 


328509 


8.3066 


1.83885 


35 


1225 


42376 


5.9161 


1 54407 


70 


4900 


313000 


8.3666 


1. 84510 



341 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Table CXXXI. — Functions of numbers — Continued 



1 

1 

is 


i 


2 


° 


1 

§ 

w 


1 

3 

5 


b 

2 
I 


| 
8 

r x 


o 


I 

c 

a 

to 


s 

1 


71 


5041 


3S79II 


8.4261 


1.86126 


86 


7396 


636056 


9.2738 


1.48450 


72 


5194 


373218 


8-4653 


X S5733 


87 


7569 


658303 


9. 3274 


1 93952 


73 


5339 


389017 


8. 3440 


1.86333 


83 


7744 


681472 


9.3S0S 


1. 94448 


74 


5476 


JJI 


8.6023 


1. 86923 


89 


7921 


704669 


9.4340 


L 94939 




E62S 


421875 


8.6603 


1.87306 


90 


8100 


729000 


9.4S68 


L95424 


n 


6776 


438976 


a 7178 


1. SS0B1 


91 


S2SI 


753571 


9.5394 


1.95904 


77 


5929 


4J6533 


S.7750 


1.S8649 


92 


8464 


77S6S8 


9.5MT 


1.96379 


7S 


6084 


4T45S2 


S.S31S 


1.89309 


93 


8649 


804357 


9-6437 


1.96S4B 


7S 


6241 


493039 


ji.fia.33 


1 B9763 


94 


8836 


830584 


9-6954 


1.97313 


SO 


6400 


512000 


£.0143 


1.90309 


95 


9025 


S57375 


9.7463 


1.97772 


SI 


5561 


831441 


9.0000 


1.90349 


96 


9216 


SSI 738 


9.7990 


L98227 


82 


6734 


651308 


9.0554 


1.91381 


97 


9499 


912678 


9. 8489 


1.98677 


S3 


5889 


6717S7 


9.1104 


1.91903 


96 


9604 


941192 


9,8995 


1.99123 


Si 


70S6 


5927D4 


9.1»52 


1.92423 


99 


9801 


970299 


B. 9499 


1.99564 


85 


7225 


614125 


9.2195 


1.92942 


100 


1UOO0 


1OCO000 


10.0000 


2.00000 



342 



REFERENCE DATA 



I 



1—= 


2g g 

r T " 




Hill 


Mill 


Iffi 




| m . « : a 




1111 


g g K 15 




III! 

I*. p 
O 


s ^ 


s 1 1 a 


ill <f! 

oe te to co 




c* 

K r 1 e a 

g £ £ g 

d 


:« ^ 


1- 


HIS 

1-- 1- r- i-- 


- 


1 1 1 1 


5 5 is ifl 


III! 


G 2 1 S - 
3 S 3 8 




ini 

S a « «i 
<s • • ■ 


mi 


Itll 


Ills 


KS 


s|f § 

d 


10 t» at f-t 

^ £4 t» g 

^ ^ *r 


n s s s 

9 1 ift 


1111 


**t 


1111 




nil 


gill 

P5 TO rt « 


ilfl 

n * * ^ 


Dd 




S; & s S3 




p; t? r; « 


CI 


SSEJ 

i-H .p* t-i -H 

>3 ■ 1 ' 


ma 


IIII 


ilti 


■H 




1 1 8 1 


■ — 1 • — 1 ^— — ■ 


^ n 'i5 
*f w S s 




d 


I— — 1 — — 




M 1-1 -3 


O 


1^ - ^ 

8 c a 
• • ' 


rase 

§ 1 1 1 


l> O iH M 

iff! 


1 if § 




a 






a? ■= 

«■ ^ * £ 

■KM' lin 



343 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




344 



Table CXXXIV.— Natural trigonometric 



functions 



AnH< 


Sin, 


0° 


0.000 


1° 


.017 


2° 


.035 


3° 


.052 


4° 


.070 


s° 


. 087 


6" 


.105 


7" 


.122 


8' 


.133 


8° 


.153 


10° 


. 174 


11° 


.101 


l.T 


.208 


13° 


.225 


14° 


.242 


IS" 


.259 


18° 


.273 


17° 


.292 


18° 


.309 


19° 


.326 


20° 




21° 


.358 


22° 


.375 


23° 


.391 


24° 


.407 


25° 


.423 


23° 


.438 


37° 


.454 


28° 


.489 


29° 


.435 


30° 


.500 


81° 


.515 


32° 


.530 


33° 


.545 


84° 


.559 


8i° 


. 574 


36° 


.688 


37' 


.602 


38° 


.818 


38° 


.629 


40° 


.643 


41" 


.656 


42° 


.609 


43° 


.682 


44" 


.895 


45° 


.707 




Cos. 



Cospc. 



57.30 
28.65 
19.11 
14.34 

11.47 
9.567 
8.203 
7. 185 
6. 3512 

5. 759 
5 241 
4. 810 
4.445 
4.134 

3.864 
3.828 
3.420 
3.236 
3.072 

2.924 
2.790 
2669 
2559 
2. 459 

2.363 
2 281 
2.203 
2. 130 
2063 
2.000 
1.942 
1.837 
1.836 
1.788 

1.743 
1.701 
1.862 

1.624 
1.589 

1.553 
1.524 
1.494 
1.486 
1.440 

1.414 

Sec. 



Tan. 

0,000 
.017 
.035 
.052 
.070 

.087 
.105 
.123 
.141 
.158 
.176 
. 194 
.213 
.231 



.287 
.306 
.325 
.344 
.364 
,384 
.404 
.424 
.445 

.486 
.488 
.510 
.532 
.554 

.577 
.801 
.625 
.649 
.676 

.700 
.727 
.754 
.781 
.810 

.839 
.889 
.900 
.933 
.966 
1.000 
Cotan. 



Cotan. 


See. 


1 

Cos. 


■- 




1. 000 




90 


57.29 


1.000 


1,000 


39° 


28.64 


1.001 


.999 


88° 


19.08 


1.001 


.999 


87° 


14.30 


1.002 


.998 


83° 


1 1.43 


i mi 

1. uu* 


. yyt> 


85 


9.514 


1.006 


. 995 


84° 


8. 144 


1.003 


.993 


83° 


7. 115 


1, 010 


.990 


82° 


6 314 


1.012 


.938 


81° 


5. 671 


1,015 




air 


5. 145 


1.019 


.982 




4.705 


1,022 


.978 


78° 


4. 331 


1.026 


.974 




4. Oil 


1,031 


.970 


76° 


3. 732 


1. 035 


. 966 


io 


3.487 


1.040 


.961 


74° 


3.271 


1.046 


.958 


73° 


3. 078 


1.051 


.951 


72° 


2.904 


1.053 


.946 


71° 


2. 747 


1 064 


940 


70 


2.805 


1.071 


.934 


69° 


2.476 


1.079 


.927 


38° 


2. 350 


1.083 


.921 


67° 


2 246 


1.095 


.914 


66° 


2, 145 


1. 103 




65 


2.050 


1.113 


.899 


64° 


1.963 


1. 122 


,891 


63° 


1. 881 


1.133 


.883 


62° 


1.304 


1.143 


.875 


61° 


1. 732 


1. 155 


. 866 


80° 


1.664 


1. 167 


,857 


59° 


1,600 


1. 179 


.848 


58° 


1.540 


1. 192 


.839 


57° 


1.483 


1.209 


.829 


56° 


1. 423 


1 221 


819 


55 


1.378 


1. 238 


.809 


54° 


1.327 


1.252 


.799 


53° 


J.1N0 


1,269 


.783 


52° 


1.235 


1.287 


.777 


51" 


1.192 


1.306 


.768 


50° 


1. 150 


1.325 


.765 


49° 


1. Ul 


1.346 


.743 


48° 


1.072 


1.367 


.731 


47° 


1.036 


1.390 


.719 


48° 


l.ooo 


1.414 


.707 


45° 


Tan. 


Cosec. 


Sin. 


Allele 



CORPS CT ENGINEERS 



o. Artai. 



Tabi* CXXXV. — Useful formulae 



{1} Circle: A-*r'—f 

(2) Triangle: A = W>li , . 

(3) Trapezoid < one J^ ,T ot opt™ 119 
sides parallel): /4-H/i(o+c> 

(4) Ellipse: A = rlf 

(5) Sphere: 
6. VofaMWW. 

(1) Prism or cylinder: "— .4fcfl 

(2) pyramid or cone: V^HAth 

(8) Frustrum o_f_pyT|imia or cone: 

C Tritononuiry. 
(1) Bine S 



(i) cosine 8 



cosecant s 
1 

secant 8 

I 



sine* 



(3) tangent 8~ m umteMe "cosine a 
(« sine (90SW) -cosines 
(S) cosine (90o±«)-sme 9 
(B) tangent (ao° ±a) -cotan gent 8 
_ , e , Jl -cosin cfl 
{7} 5ino-g-±y- 2 

(8) ^-±^1+^ 

d. Mttiwnfes. 

(1) Rectilinear motion: 



(» Kinetics: 



Af>ms 
W-F » 

(S) Beams: 

, iff If 



(1) Manning's formula for flow In 
open channels: 



r— radius 

d= diameter 

o=base 

ft -altitude 
6 and c= parallel sides 
I and f-som taxes 

1-3.1416 

vlt— area of base 
A -height 



Ai and .4 1 = areas of 
r- radius 



9 -angle 



B-velDclty in feet per second 
t= distance in feet 
retime in seconds 
a ™ acceleration in feet per second 
initial velocity In feet per second 



F= force in pounds 

Bt-S -weight in pounds divided by 
Q acceleration due to gravity 

(32.2) 

J = Impulse in pound-seconds 
A/=>moinentumin pound-feet persecond 
W-work in foot-pounds 



/-Intensity of stress in tension or com- 
pression In pounds per square I uch 
Af-bending moment in Inch-pounds 

«= distance In inches of fiber from 
center of gravity of section 

/-moment o( inertia of section in 
inches* j 

S-section modulus In inches '» - 

t=- velocity in feet per second 
r- hydraulic radius in feet 
»- hydraulic slope 

n=d«'f!ii:ii'nt "( roughness (for values 

otn h-b table ( XXX VI) 
d- diameter of pipes In Inches 



346 



Table CXXXV.— Useful formulae— Continued 

t. ITytirau ?fcj — Continued. 
(2) Manning's formula for Bow In 
pipes: 

n 



(3) Rectangular weir (Francis for- 
mula): 

(2=3.33£(t-0.1 71) UH+h)V,-h*f t ] 



f. EltetTtols. 

(1) Direct ci 
F.-IR 
W-EI 



(2) Alternating current: 
W-(pf) El 



G=diseharge in cubic feet per second 
i— length of weir in feet 
/f=head on weir in feet 
A-= velocity head in feet 
n -number of end contractions (taken 
as zero when L>HX10} 



E<" electromotive force in voltfl 
/— current in amperes 
K= res (stance In ohms 
If '— power in watts 
pf= power factor In percentage 



Table CX3EXVI.— Value3 of n for Manning's formula 



Type of channel 



Value of n 



Flow In open channels: 

Well-planed timber.. _ 

Neat cement 

Cement mortar with one-third sand. 

Unplaned timber, . 

Ashlar and well-laid brie* 

Hough brickwork „ 

/tub hie masonry 

Canals in firm ground,, . 

Canals and rivers; 

In good condition — 

With stones and weeds 

In bad condition 

Flow in pipes: 

Clean uncoated cast-iron . _ . 

Clean coated cast- Iron ..... ...... . 



Dirty or tubcrciitatcd cast-Iron. 

Riveted steel __. 

Lock-bar and welded..... 

Oalvaniifld-iron 

Brass 

Wood-stave _. 

Concrete 



Vitrified sewer . 

Common clay drainage tile.. 



0.035 to 

. 01 1 to 
. 010 to 
.OlSto 

.onto 

.010 to 
,012 to 
.009 to 
.010 to 
.010 to 
. (HO to 
.011 to 



o.oo» 

.010 

.on 

.012 
.013 
.01B 
.017 

.021) 

.029 
.030 
.040 

.019 
.014 
.035 
.017 
.013 
.017 
.013 
.014 
.017 
.017 
.017 



347 



CORPS OP ] 



Table CXXXVU,— Properties of sections 

AXIS OF MOMENTS THROUGH CENTER 
A - d 2 




m g 



12 



V12 



- .2887 d 



AXIS OF MOMENTS ON BASE 
A - d« 
c ( - d 

I " * 

- .5774 d 



d 

V¥ 



AXIS OF MOMENTS ON DIAGONAL 

A = d 2 

c = - T^f " 7071 d 



VI 



S ' 



6V? 



VSl 

Properties of sections — Square. 



.2887d 



348 



REFERENCE DATA 



Table CXXXVII.— Properties of sections— Continued 





AXIS OF MOMENTS THROUGH 
CENTER OF GRAVITY 



A = 

e, = 

I = 

S - 

r = 



w 
i 

d 

vie' 



= 2357d 



AXIS OF MOMENTS 
ON BASE 



A 

I 

S 



= .4082 d 



Properties or sections— Triangle. 



282736° — 41 23 349 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Table CXXXVII.— Properties of sections— Continued 




A 
c 
I 

S 
r 



4 



AXIS OF MOMENTS THROUGH CENTER 

«JP = .7854d* = 3.14 16 R l 
R 

.0491 <T = .7654 R* 
.0982d 5 = .7S54R' 



4 



4 



" "4- = -f 



Properties ot sections— Circle. 



REFERENCE DATA 



Tabu: CXXXVII. — Properties of sections — Continued 



AXIS OF MOMENTS THROUGH CENTER 




A = 
c, = 

I - 



bd 

d 

2 

M 

12 



- ¥ 

3% 



.2887 d 



AXIS OF MOMENTS ON BASE 
A - bd 

Cj =■ d 



AXIS OF MOMENTS ON DIAGONAL 



_d_ 



- .5774 d 



A 

C 3 

I 

S 



bd 



bd 



VbVd 2 

b'd' 
eibW) 

b'd 1 

bd 

V6(b ! +d ! ) 



AXIS OF MOMENTS ANY LINE 
THROUGH CENTER OF GRAVITY 



A = 

e. = 

I = 

S D 



r = 



bd 

b sin g + d COS 
2 

bdlb' sin z o + d ? cos'o^ 
12 

bd(b* sin g o + d g cos'o) 



6(b sin o + d cos o) 
^jjjljfi'o + d' eps'o. 

Properties of sections— Rectangle. 
351 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Table GXXXVII .—Properties of sections — Continued. 




AXIS OF MOMENTS THROUGH 
CENTER OF GRAVITY 



A = 

c — 

I = 

s = 

r s 



Ri (#--&) 



R 3i 9' ? -6±. 
6* 



1.5708 R 2 
5756R 
1098 R* 
1907 R 1 

.2643 R 



NOTE: 

TRANSFER OF AXES: TO FIND THE MOMENT OF INERTIA {IJ 
OF ANY AREA A ABOUT ANY AXIS IN TERMS OF THE 
MOMENT OF INERTIA L ABOUT A PARALLEL AXIS THROUGH 
THE CENTER OF GRAVITY OF THE AREA, IF X IS THE 
DISTANCE BETWEEN THE TWO AXES 1 

I, ■ Io + AX* 

Properties of sections— Hair circle. 



352 



REFERENCE DATA 



Tasli CXXXVUI. — Beam diagrams and formulas far various static 
loading conditions 



* — Jt — 1 

iiiiii 


i — -• 


Shear 

A 


H H 



Mmiit ^at point of k.j J*) 
~£ M, ^ wh*n*<y ^ 
Amlx* ^at point of toad^ 
o« ( "h»n " < y ) 



F 

*T 

4 



48EJ" 



Simple beam— Concentrated load at center. 



- 



■ V L ( man. wTien a < b 



)■ 



" J 

i 



Mm#i.^ at point of l«d } 

«m»..^.t,-Y * 1, i 4 -" J «*«*>bj 
aa ( at ooirtt load J . . . i . 

J.. ( »lir ■ < I ) . e F *j tli-o"-i»j 

Simple beam— Concentrated load at any point. 



Fitlltft .' Sj a + ?0 



r r i m 1 ! m n 1 1 m 



R * V » * * ~ ■ ■ 2 _ 

Vx - " 

C\ ml* 

at center )•«»•» — -g- 

M, --^-(f— > 



.1'— 2f*i+x») 



Simple beam— Uniformly distributed load. 



353 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



Table CXXXVUr. — Beam, diagrams and formulas for various static 
loading conditions— Continued. 



^1 R. - V, ( r, 
■V.( 




max, whm a > c 



:). . 



■^«c+b> 



21 



(2»+b) 



Ran 



(i*w * < ■ »"<l > . . - Ri — i (x—my 

(at I - 1 + .... 

^ V, M« (lh»Kl) 

B, (whan i > i and < (a+b)) . . - Ru ^ (■—«)' 

M, (*■!< «+«) .... - Rid-.) 

Simple beam— Uniform load partially distributed. 



R, 



R. -V, 
R> - V, 



V, 
M[ 



F, (J— i) + Fib 



( 



> *ind <; ll^w) ■ - - Ri — Fi 

Ri < Fi) . . . . - n,» 

Ri < Ft J .... - Rib 

whin « < a) - Rut 

when i >a and < (I— b)^ , , - R,»— Fi(i— a) 

Simple beam — Two unequal concentrated loads unsymmetrlcally 



354 



REFERENCE DATJN 



Section II 
DATA ON MATERIALS 
Table CXKSJX. — Weigh ts of materials 



Material 



Weight 
per cubic 

foot 
{pounds) 



Material 



Welsh! 
per cubic 

foot 
(pounds) 



Cast. 
Wire 
phi 

Brick 

Bronze. 

Coal: 

Anthracite 
Bltumlnou 

Charcoal 

Concrete; 
■Reinforced 

Stone 

Copper, cast . . 
Crashed— 
Gravel. ... 
Gran 
Lime 
rth: 
Clay: 

Dry, compact. .. 
Damp, plastic. . 
Common— 

Loose, dry 

Moist, rammed. 

Loam 

Mud, wet: 

Ftnid 

Pressed 

Sand: 

Pure Quartz, dry 

Loose 

Rammed 

Natural, loose... 



160 
168 
69-94 
610-M2 
110-130 
M5-555 

97 
84 

17- 35 

ISO 
140-150 
E49-558 

95-104 
90 
94 



100 
110 

70 
100 
65-88 

nn- i a 

110-130 



87-106 
100-120 
80-11Q 



Earth— Continued 
Sand— Continued 

Wet 

Gravel, clay raised: 
Compact, dry.. 
Wet 

Gravel: 

Loom 

Hammed 

Ice 

Iron: 

Grey cast 

Wrought 

Lead 

Lime 

Masonry: 

Mortar nibble 

Dry rubble 

Bock: 

Granite.. ... 

Gravel, clean 

Shale 

Soapstone 

Trap 

Bait 

Enow: 

Fresh (alien 

Wet compact 

Steel 

Tin 

Water; 

Fresh 

Sea 

Wood-. - 



■See labia CXL. 



355 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

Table CXL.— Weights of wood 



Kind 



Pounds per 
cubic foot 



Given Air dry 



Pounds per 
1,000 board feet 
@3H cubic 
feet) 



Ash: 

Whit* _ 

Black - 

Beech 

Cedar: 

Eastern red 

Western red........ 

Cottonwood, eastern 

Cypress, southern 

Douglas fir. 

Hemlock: 

Eastoro 

Western 

rjiekors'- 

Larch, western- 

Oak: 

Bed.. 

White 

Pine: 

I>oiiEleaf._ 

Short lcaf_ __ _ 

Western yellow 

Rcdwood._ 

Spruce, red or white. _ __ 

Tamarack 

Walnut, black 

I Indicates 12 percent moisture; content. 



356 



REFERENCE DATA 

Table CXLI. — Safe bearing power of soils 



Safe hearfnB power 



Pounds per 
square inch 



6.9 


H 


13.9 


1 


27.8 


2 


27,8 


2 


W.6 


4 


55.8 


4 


69.5 


t 


111.2 


8 


W9-347 


10-25 



Soil 



Quicksand and alluvial soil 

Soft clay 

Clean, dry sand . 

Medium dry clay 

Compact sand 

Dry clay 

Rock (poor) 

Cemented gravel 

Kock (solid and fltst quality)... 



Table CXLII. — Allowable compressive stresses for masonry 



Material 



Stress 
(pounds per 
suuareluch) 



Coursed rubble, portlnnd cement mortar 

Ordinary nibble, Portland cement mortar 

Coursed rubble, lime mortar . . 

Ordinary rubble, lime mortar. .... . 

First-class granite masonry, portland cement mortar 

First-class limestone and sandstone masonry, Portland cement mortar 

Paving brick masonry, Portland cement mortar - 

Selected hard common brick masonry, Portland cement mortar 

Common brick masonry: 

Limo mortal - — 

Portland cement mortar 



200 
100 
120 
60 
600 
400 
350 
200 

loo 

175 



357 



CORPS OP ENGINEERS 



Table CXLJIX— Allowable stresses for timber* 



Variety and grade or lumber 


Extreme 

fiber 
bending 


Horlion 
tal shear 


Com 

Perpen- 
dicular t 
grain 


ITBSSlon 

Parallel 
to grain 


.vi od til us 
of elas- 
ticity 

i 


Pounds per square inch 


Douglas fir 










1,600,000 


Dense select structural 


2,400 


US 


500 


1,700 


Select structural ■ 


a, 100 


125 


450 


1,600 




Select mertliBu table 


1,600 


125 


425 


1,300 




Yellow pine, long leal or dense 












short leaf.. . 










1,600,000 


Select structural 


2,600 


' 165 


500 


1,900 


Structural square edges 














2,100 


> 105 


500 


1,700 




No, 1 structural i 


1,800 


'105 


500 


1,600 




Redwood 










1, 200,000 


Prime structural 


2,000 


105 


350 


1,600 


Select structural 


1,700 


90 


350 


1,450 




Heart structural . . . 


1,300 


70 


350 


1,300 




Southern cypress 










1,200,000 


Select structural «... 


1,700 


125 


400 


1,450 


Common structural 


I, MO 


105 


400 


1,150 




Eastern faemlock___ 










1,100,000 


Select structural 


1,450 


90 


400 


900 



1 Figures aro for a factor or safety of 3, For green timber use 00 percent or values 
given, 

i Basis or Engineer Board designs tor BT-15 timber trestle bridge. 
* For long leaf yellow pine, this figure Is 130. 



358 



REFERENCE DATA 



Table CXLIV.— Alloioable stress for steel 1 



Pounds per 
square Inch 



Direct axial tension on net section — 

Direct axial compression, maximum for short columns 2 

Compression in columns*. ._ 

Fiber stress in flexure, in tension, or in compression when the unsup- 
ported length (£) is not more than 15 times the breadth (I/). 
Compressive fiber stress in flexure for value L/b between 15 and 40. 

Fiber stress in pins 

Bearing o n plane faced or rolled surraces 

Bhcar In gross section of webs of girders and rolled shapes in which (.■,'■ , 
the unsupported depth between fiances or the distance between 
stifTeners, if less, divided by (0 (the thickness of web) does not exceed 
43. 

Shear when d{l exceeds 43 

Shear in power-driven rivets or In pins 

Shear in hand-driven rivets or in rough bolts . 

Bearing upon power-driven rivets or In pins subjected to single shear 

on one side of the bearing in question. 
Bearing upon power-driven rivets or on pins when the bearing metal 

lies between two planes of shear of opposite character immediately 

adjacent. 

Bearing upon hand-driven rivets or on rough bolts subjected to single 
shear on one side of the bearing in question. 

Bearing upon hand-driven rivets or on rough bolts when the bearing 
metal lies between two planes of shear of opposite character Immedi- 
ately 



18,000. 
14,000. 
1 8,000 -70Z. 
r 

18,000. 

22,000-270 L 
F 

27,000. 
27,000. 
12,000. 



15,000-70 ^ 

t 

13,600, 

10,000. 

24,000, 



30,000. 

16,000. 
20,000. 



1 For design, all values in this table may be Increased 25 percent. 

■ Compression stresses in columns, computed by the formulas for column 
may not exceed In any case the maximum for direct axial 
L- length of column; r= least radius of gyration. 



359 



CORPS OP ENGINEERS 



Table CXLV.— Contents of lumber 
[Number of board feet in various skes for lenctha given] 



Sis* of piece 
(inches) 



Length of pi™ (feet) 



30 


12 


14 


1 A 


IS 


20 


•11 




24 




S 8 




4 30? 


i 12 


13V 


i 14? 


i 16 


10 


12 


14 


la 


IS 


20 


22 


24 


m 


S 16 


m 


5 21) 


4 24 


26? 


i 291 


1 32 


m 


i 20 




i 20 


4 30 


33V 


i 36?- 


4 40 


20 


24 


28 




36 


40 


44 


48 


23! 


5 2!! 


82; 


4 37? 


i 42 


46? 


t 51 ! 


i 56 


26? 


& 32 


37? 


5 42? 


1 48 


53V 


1 58? 


i 64 


16 


IS 


2] 


24 


27 


30 


33 


36 


20 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


44 


48 


as 


30 


36 


40 


46 


50 


55 


60 


30 


36 


42 


48 


54 


60 


66 


72 


35 


42 


49 


66 


63 


70 


77 


84 


40 


48 


66 


64 


72 


80 


88 


96 




id 


1(8- 


i 21V 


t 24 


2C?> 


29V 


32 


20 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


44 


48 


26*' 


32 


37)' 


1 42^ 


48 


53 ) J 


58?' 


64 


S3" 


40 


46?1 




60 


66?; 


73V 


SO 


40 


4S 


56 


64 


72 


80 


88 


96 




56 


m: 


74?' 


84 


m 


102?; 


312 


53 y 


64 




S5V 


96 


ios?; 


117!; 


128 


30 


36 


42 


48 


64 


60 


66 


72 


40 


48 


56 


64 


72 


80 


88 


96 


so 


60 


70 


80 


00 


100 


110 


120 


m 


72 


84 


96 


108 


120 


132 


144 


"0 


S4 


98 


112 


326 


140 


154 


168 


so 


96 


112 


328 


144 


160 


176 


192 


90 


108 


126 


144 


162 


188 


198 


216 


loo 


120 


140 


160 


180 


200 


220 


£313 


53)4 


64 


74?4 


86)4 


96 


106?4 


1)714 


128 


mi 


SO 


93)4 


10634 


120 


333 VS 


146?4 


160 


so 


96 


112 


128 


144 


160 


176 


192 


mi 


112 


130&4 


14'JH 


168 




205 Vj 


224 


83)4 


100 


116% 


133)4 


150 


19S?4 


183)4 


200 


loo 


120 


140 


160 


180 


200 


220 


240 


new 


140 


163 )4 


I86H 


210 


233VS 


256? S 


280 


133 VS 


160 


186?4 


213)4 


240 


266?3 


29354 


320 


120 


144 


168 


192 


2 16 


240 


264 


2SS 


140 


169 


196 


224 


252 


280 


308 


336 


160 


102 


224 


256 


288 


320 


352 


384 




196 


1S«*4 


261)4 


29+ 




358V4 


392 


18B?4 


224 


261k. 


29SSj 


336 


373)4 


410?4 


448 



2by4.. 
2by6_. 
2by8... 
2by]0_. 
2 by 12.. 

2 by 14.. 

2 by 16.. 
3by6... 
3by8_. . 

3 by 30. _ 

3 by 12. _ 
3 by 14.. 

3 by 36 

4 by 4... 
4by0_._ 

4by8... 
4 by 10._ 
4 by 12 . 
4 by 14. _ 
4 by 16.. 

6by6... 
6by8..- 
6 by 10__ 
6 by 12.. 
6 by 14_. 
6 by 16.. 
6 by IS.. 
6by20._ 
8 by 8. 
SbylO.. 

8 by 12. _ 
Sby 14.. 
10 by 10. 
10 by 12. 
10 by 14.. 

If) by 16 
12 by 12 
12 by 14 
12 by 16 
14 by 14. 
H by in 



360 



REFERENCE DATA 
Table CXLVT. — Safe slopes for cuts and fills 
Climatic conditions 



Material 


Combined rain 
and heavy frost 


Bain, not much 
frost 


Arid regions, 
not much frost 




Cat 


vm 


Ont 


FDJ 


Out 


Fill 


Sand 


1M:1 


2:1 


m-.i 


2:1 


2 


i 


4:1 




1^:1 


1M:1 


1:1 


M.l 


1 


i 


l«:t 


Loam 


\m 


im 


im 


1H:1 


m 


i 


1H:1 


flay 


2:1 


4:1 


1:1 


3:1 


i 


i 


m.t 


Boulders, eartb 


1V4:1 


IVfcl 


1:1 


m.i 


i 


i 


1M:1 


Hocks, slab buried in earth 


1:1 


1H-.1 


%:1 


im 


i 


i 


1«:1 


Broken rock and shale 


J&l 


IW 


m 




H 


i 


1(4:1 


Solid rock 


m 


1:1 


Hi 


1:1 


H 


l 


1:1 



CXLVII. — Sizes of threaded, round bars, bolts, nuts, and 
washers (U. S. standard) 



Diam- 
eter 
of bar 
(Inches) 



5< 
% 

1 

m 

IM 

m 
m 
m 
m 
m 

2 

2W 

m 



Net 
diam- 
eter 

(inches) 



0.620 
.731 



939 
064 
158 
283 
389 
490 
615 
711 
961 
2.175 



Not 
cross- 
sec- 
tional 
area at 
base of 
thread 
(square 
inches) 



0.30 
.42 

.as 

.69 
.89 
1.05 
1.29 
1-61 
LJ4 
2.05 
2.30 
3.02 
3.72 



Short 
diam- 
eter of 
nuts 
(inches) 



IM 
VAt 

m 

l»jif 
2 

2?1s 

m 

291 a 
294 

21«9 

m 
m 



Washers 


Diam- 
eter of 

bolt 

hole 
(luetics) 


Diam- 
eter of 
washer 
(inches) 


Thick- 
ness of 
washer 
(inch) 
(approil- 
mate) 


■Ji» 
'Hi 

ljVfs 

IM 

i» 

IM 


2 

m 

2W 

m. 

3 

3V4 


0. 134 
. 15 
.15 
. 15 
. 16 
.15 







































361 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

Table CXLVIII.— Sizes of wire nails 



Si id (d-penny) 



Length 
(inches) 



Number 

per 
pound 



Bite (d-penny) 



(inches) 



a-d 

3-d 

t-d 

5*1 

6- d 

7- d 

8- d 

9- d 

10- d 

12-d 

lfl-d 



2 

%i 
25* 

3 

3« 



MS 

CIS 
3Z2 
250 
200 
1M 
106 
85 
74 
57 
46 



2Q-d. 

30-d. 

4(W. 

50-d. 

80-d. 

70-d. 

S0-d 

9CM1. 

100-d 

120-d 



4 


29 


*M 


23 


5 


17 


&H 


13J^ 


6 




7 


7 


8 


6 


9 


5 


10 


4 


12 


3 



Table CXLIX. — Sizes of fence staples 



Stie 
(Inches) 


Number 
per 
pound 


Si so 
(inches) 


Number 

l;er 
pound 


tm 

(inches) 


Number 

per 
pound 


1 

IH 


10S 
96 


m 


87 

72 


m 

2 


85 
58 



362 



REFERENCE DATA 



Section m 

TROOP MOVEMENT DATA 

Tablb CL.. — Average rates ami lengths of march under favorable 
conditions {see also FM 101-10) 



Type or unit 



Rates of march (miles per hour) 
On roads Acro^ country 



Day 



Night 



Day 



Night 



Length 

march 
(miles 
per 
day) 



Foot troops 

Horse-drown artillery „, 

Pack artillery 

Tractors 

Horso cavalry 

Truck-drawn heavy ar tillery 

Truck-drawn medium artillery 

Tanks or combat cars.- — 

Truck-drawn light and antiaircraft 

artillery — — 

Trucks — 

Armored cars and scout cars 

[ cars and motorcycles 



2H 
3Js 
6 

IS 
20 

25 

25 
25 
35 
35 



2 
3 
3 

3M 
5 

15-10 
20-10 
25-10 

25-10 
25-10 
35-10 
35-10 



3 
3 
3 
5 
8 
S 
15 

i 
a 

10 
10 



15 
20 
20 
30 
35 
Mil 
140 
150 

17S 
175 
200 
260 



i Smaller figure in 2-figure groups Is tor rates ol march without lights. 
Table CUL— Basic road, spaces {for motor vehicles see FM ZS-1Q) 



Yards 



Animals: 

In column of fours per animal . 

In column of twos — - . do 

Single flic - - do 

Foot troops: 

In column of twos. - - —per man . . 

In column of threes.. — ~__do 

In column of fours. do — 



H 



363 



Abatis. 



Paragraphs Pages 



Abutments 

Anchorages 

Antimechanized defense . 

Antitank ditches 

Antitank mines 

Approaches 



142 



78 

139-146 
.. 143 
.. 140 
S3 



Barriers 139-146 

Bending moment 35 

Bivouacs _ 15 

Bituminous road materials 31 

Block and tacHe 81 

Boats, assault 54 

Breaching — - 134-135 

Bridge 32-45 

Capacities 32 

Data, general (see also ch. 4) 38 

Design criteria 34, 35 

Foundations 33 

Loads: 

Allowable 45 

Dead 37 

Typical and critical 32 

Shear 39 

Bridges 46-^54 

Foot 47,48 



49 
51 
52 
46 
50 
51 

Camouflage 111-138 



Ponton- 
Portable __ 

Spar 

Suspension . 

Trestle 

Truss 



Airdromes and airplanes. _ 

Antitank guns 

Batteries : 

Antiaircraft 

Artillery 

Bivouacs 



128 
124 



Buildings 

Dumps 

Machine guns 

Mortars 

Observation posts. 

Railways 

Roads 



Telephone and telegraph lines , 

Trucks and tanks 

Camps 

Caps 

Chemicals 

Concrete 

Construction 



Quantities 
282736' 



126 

125 

117 

118 

119 

122 

123 

121 

115 

114 

116 

120 

16 

40 

146 

83-87 

85-87 

84 
85 



331 
78 
168 
324 
332 
326 
78 

324 
62 
25 
68 
170 
115 
314 
73 
73 
73 
81 
78 

95 
88 
73 
93 
90 
97 
98, 101 
103 
112 
113 
97 
109 
112 

283 
303 
299 

303 
299 
296 
296 
297 
297 
299 
297 
2B6 
294 
296 
297 
26 
90 
337 
186 
189 
186 
189 



365 



INDEX 



Construction: Paragraphs Pages 

General 4 2 

In war: 

Airdromes 61 138 

Data, general (see also ch. 4} 62 139 

Depot lay-out 60 136 

Hospitals , 59 135 

Reconnaissance data 67 125 

Semipermanent camps 58 126 

Standard buildings 58 126 

Cratering 136 318 

Decontamination _ 146 337 

Demolition: 

Brickwork 134 314 

Concrete 134 314 

Masonry __ 134 314 

Railways 133 313 

Bock 134 314 

Steel members 132 311 

Demolitions, general 137 322 

Derrick 80 170 

Duties of engineers 3 2 

Electrical firing 130 306 

Electrical wiring 77 162 

Electricity 78-77 159 

Data, general 75 160 

Requirements 74 159 

Emplacements 103-110 249 

Engineer units: 

Camouflage battalion: 

Army 5.10 3,15 

GHQ — 5, 10 3, 16 

Combat battalion: 

Armored 5.7 3,6 

Triangular division S, 6 3, 5 

Combat regiment: 

Corps _ 5,9 3,10 

Square division 5, 6 3, 5 

Depot company 5, 14 3, 21 

Dump truck company 5,14 3,21 

General service regiment 6, 9 3, 10 

Ponton — ■ 

Battalion, heavy 5, 11 8, 15 

Company, light 5, 11 3, 15 

Hallway battalion: 

Operating 5, 12 3, 17 

Shop.. _ _ 5,12 3,17 

Regiment, aviation 5, 9 3, 10 

Separate battalion 5, 9 3, 10 

Shop company, mobile 5, 14 3, 21 

Squadron 5,8 3,6 

Topographic battalion: 

Army 6,13 3,21 

GHQ 6,13 3,21 

Topographic company (corps) 6, 13 3, 21 

Water supply battalion fi, 14 3, 21 

366 



Paragraphs Pages 



Explosives and demolitions - 129-138 305 

p^~:::::::::::::::::::::::::::-:: % 8 

Fp _ leg — - 54 115 

Flow of wateMseV^o" Ch.~4) ----- 68, 69, 71 ^ 147. 

Potrt S2S : - — " 48 101 

itapOK no 

MI935 - - %1 11 

pooungs — — :::::::::::: 53 m 

FortiWtfonsrfleld — ----- - — 193 195 

Data, general (see also ch. 4)- - 88. 89 193, 195 

Foundations, bridge.- — - — - JJ 

Gin pole - 80 

Hltehes - - - -- — 147 jag 

Hydraulics- - - 6B ' ,l ' 

^ _ _ _ - — - 53 "a 

insulation, electrical J ^L 

Intelligence plan - 31 

Intelligence report --- 

Knots -- * - " 81 170 

Lashings — 81 170 

Mine fields J*> 

Mines- 2 I 

Mission of engineers. - 

Obstacles ----- - 98-102,139 224.324 

Orders, illustrative 

m „, - 43 83 

Piers ^ — — ■ ■ An &*_ 

Pipes . * i aa 004. 

Post obstacles — gQ 

Rafts.. - - 54 115 

Railways: lls 2g6 

Camouflage— — «g 

Data, general (see also ch. 4) - - 5b lis 

Reconnaissance _ - 55 118 

Reconnaissance : ^ 93 

9$m-~i — - 76 iei 

Electrical „ Q 31 

Engineer, general *g ^ 

Instructions 11R 

Railway - - ™ l £ 

w^tet::::::::"""--"--"--"-- 67 145 



367 



INDEX 



Paragraphs Pages 

Rigging; - 78-82 168 

Roads: 

Camouflage 114 294 

Capacity 23 50 

Construction 27 61 

Cross sections 30 54 

Culvert sizes 29 63 

Data, general 31 68 

Design requirements 24 50 

Maintenance, organization lor 28 52 

Reconnaissance 26 61 

Tables 31 68 

Traffic signs 25 60 

Rope - _ 81 170 

Shelters 103-110 249 

Types — 103 249 

Sills 40 90 

Situation report 21 34 

Slings 79 170 

Splices 81 170 

Stringer arrangement 38 89 

Stringer strength 36 83 

Supply, engineer 17 28 

Tools, intrenching 97 223 

Trench.- 00-96 200 

Accessaries 96 219 

Drainage 94 211 

profiles 91 201 

Reconnaissance 93 208 

Revetment 95 212 

Traces 92 207 

Water -cement ratios 84 186 

Water : 

Distributing! points 64 141 

Purification 70 152 

Supply 63-72 140 

General 63 140 

Military requirements 72 153 

Points 64 141 

Reconnaissance 67 145 

Wells. 68.69 147,149 

Wire (entanglements) 98,99 224,228 

Drill 99 228 

Types 99 228 

Wire rolls 141 330 

Wiring, electrical 77 162 



368 



NOTES AND MEMORANDA 

The following pages are provided for individual users to 
paste or write in such data as may be requisite for their par- 
ticular needs. 



369